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or can be sat on. or rattles. recognising everything that has the colour red. • Difference is the basis of number because number tells how many different things there are.1. that is. . the first step to number is attribute recognition. • Same is the opposite of different and is essential for understanding difference. and so on.Attributes • Number can not be understood unless children can recognise when things are the same and when they are different. the ability to recognise likeness and difference (ordering) • For example. • Hence.

• The second step is matching objects on the basis of attributes. like pencils. • To be counted. matching those that are like. • Some things are continuous (unbroken). Other things are discrete (in parts). like height. something must be discrete. • Underlying this section is the continuous-discrete dichotomy. . This focuses on the likeness of objects.

• One of the earliest learnings is detecting when there is a difference when something continuous has a break.. • The basis of measurement is changing something continuous like mass into something discrete so that number may be applied to it. a door in a wall. . becomes discrete (e. a change of colour). • This is done by using a unit and determining how many of the unit equal the measure.g.

ACTIVITY • Sorting – give a variety of materials for children to sort by their own criteria - Sort them these ways or other attributes (red/yellow) How have these been sorted? Pick out the odd ones - Add objects to the sorted groups? .

and then to three or more. • This means identifying attributes and sorting sets of objects into subsets by these attributes (e. there is reversing . going on to sorting by two attributes. therefore.. activities move onto sorting and classifying.2. shape.g. sorting by colour. size or shape will underpin sorting by number. • Once again. and. Sorting and classifying • From matching. and asking children to identify the attributes used with objects that have already been sorted. .asking children to sort objects. • The idea is that sorting by colour. • The sequence of activities would be starting by sorting on one attribute. size or number). identifying different numbers and giving one number to all collections with that number of objects.

A B B A B B A B B A B. particularly if that structure is symmetrical. • Students often believe that the next item in this pattern. Finding and following patterns is the basis of mathematics.Pattern • Patterns are rules that repeat. shape) will precede and lay foundations for number patterns. . two-dimensional and three dimensional. size. The idea is that patterns with other attributes (colour. • Children often confuse patterns with designs that have some form of structure. is A because the pattern started with an A. Patterns can be linear.

Ordering is looking at more than two objects and putting them in sequence from the one that has the least of the attribute to that which has the most. Comparing is looking at two objects and seeing which has the more of a particular attribute. Ordering should move begin with three objects. For three objects. .Comparison and order • The idea here is that comparing objects for attributes such as height and mass leads into comparing numbers in terms of size of number. the first activities should involve comparing two objects and then adding in a third object which is the smallest or the largest. • Comparing should precede ordering.

one egg for each eggcup. • The idea here is that this can be assisted by putting one set of objects in 1-1 correspondence with another set (e. .One to one correspondence • One crucial thing in number is putting number names in 1-1 correspondence with objects . one fish for each fishing line. one knife for each fork.g.). number name for each object.