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Municipal Solid Waste Generation

Waste generation is often expressed in term of a waste generation rate, (Kg/Per.day). House hold waste generation increases with income. E.g. Kandy and Jaffna to be 0.85 kg/per.day and 0.92 kg/per.day respectively. The average waste generation rate in several study town to be 0.98kg/per.day, ranging from 0.88kg/per.day in Jaffna to 1.18 kg/per.day in Kandy.

Waste Generation Cont.


Study obtained the following generation rate for Kandy. Low income 0.37 kg/Person.day Middle income 0.47kg/person.day High income 0.67 kg/person.day waste

Municipal waste generation is also closely related to the state of the town/City economy, Developing countries 0.3 1.0 kg/per.day Developed countries 1.0 2.5 kg/per.day

Waste Generation Cont. Waste generation is also affected by a number of other factors, including. The floating population, Season, Festivals and other special occasions. The waste generation rate may be also be used for SWM planning purpose, such as To estimate the total amount of waste generated in different areas of the town/city by multiplying the generation rate by the population in these areas. To predict future waste generation based on expressed population and economic growth rates.

Waste Discharge
After

waste is generated, people may dispose of it in a number of ways On-site disposal burning and /or burial On-site composting Recycling, generally involving individual collectors visiting peoples Premises Discharge for LA collection Illegal dumping LAs are most interested in the amount of waste discharged for collection. This may be expressed in terms of the waste discharged rate - the quantity of waste discharged for collection per person per day.

WASTE DISCHARGE CONT..

This is shown in the following example for Jaffna. Current Situation (Determine by Survey - 2001)
2001 MSW

population = 110,000

2001 waste generation rate

= 1.18kg/per.day
MSW

2001 waste discharge rate

= 0.85kg/per.day
Current

MSW discharge = 110,000 X 0.85

= 92,441kg/day = 92.4 Tons/day

Future Situation (2012)


Estimate

population growth rate = 0.97% Estimate increase in waste discharge rate = 0.85 of economic growth rate = 2.2% Expected population in 2012 = 110,000 x 1.009710 = 121,202 Expected MSW discharge rate in 2012 = 0.85 x 1.02210 = 1.04 kg/person.day Expected MSW discharge in 2012 = 121,202 x 1.04 = 126,050 kg/day = 126 Tons/day Increased MSW discharge for collection = 36% in 10 years

WASTE COMPOSITION
The

following composition data is also useful in SWM. Waste bulk density : Used for selecting and sizing storage containers, public bins and collection vehicles and for converting vehicle trips data to tons.
Moisture:

Used for looking at treatment options, especially compositing and incineration. to Nitrogen ratio : Useful for composting.

Carbon

PHYSICAL COMPOSITION

Waste composition for developing and developed countries

Compostable
Food/Kitchener Grass/Wood Total

SriLanka
69.9 11.7

NewZeland
38.3 15.7 54.0

Japan
26.6 9.0 35.1

81.6
6.9 5.1 1.1 1.0 1.1 15.2
---

Recycalbles
Paper Plastic Glass Metal Textile Total

22.0 8.5 4.1 3.9 5.1 43.6


----

52.5 6.9 0.2 0.4 4.0 64.0


0.5

Hazardous

Others

3.2

2.4

0.4

SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SRI LANKA


Comparative waste generation and composition Data. The physical composition of solid waste also varies between different societies and with income Item Developing Developed Countries Countries

Waste generation (kg/person.day) Waste Composition Compostable Recyclables Others Bulk density (Kg/m3 wet wt) Moisture content (wt%)

0.3 1.0

1.5 2.5

40 85 7 45 1 40 250 500 40 - 80

20 -50 25 80 1 20 100 170 20 - 30

Physical Composition
Sri Lankan MSW is: Highly organic and moderately wet. Hence, it is suitable for composting. Investment of Windrow compost plant processing 4Tons/day of garbage are 3.6M.Rs, while operation and maintenance costs are around 500Rs/Tons of waste composted. There are many failed plants around Sri Lanka. composting

OBJECTIVE OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

SWM may be broadly considered to have two main objectives: Sanitation Environmental Sanitation

Good SWM is essential for protecting peoples health and the sustainable development of the town/city.

SANITATION
LA and/or contractor must provide an effective/efficient garbage collection and disposal service for the minimum acceptable cost. It involves the following. Protection Human Health Protecting public places/private property from nuisance /danger (E.g. Obtruction, odour, vermin and fire) Keeping the town / city clean

Sanitation Cont.......
The main health/environmental risks associated with poor SWM are listed below: Organic waste rots quickly and smells. They spread disease such as typhoid, cholera, and can also cause diarrhoea, eye problems, skin disease, etc. Waste thrown into drains blocks them, causing them to fill up with water. This will cause floods during heavy rains. Insects especially mosquitoes, breed in the stagnant water. These cause diseases especially malaria, filarial and dengue. Water gets trapped in tins, plastics bags and tyres that have been thrown away mosquitoes, even more disease.

Environmental Protection
Good sanitation should be provide many people within the town/city: clean neighbourhoods - reduced disease health life beautiful environment.
Open dumping This creates serious hardship for people living near the disposal site. dumping at one place, usually in the open with no soil cover being applied or any other environmental protection measures being taken

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION CONT..


Discontinuing

open dumping.

Implementing

controlled tipping , which at the very least involves applying soil cover to the waste daily. to sanitary land filling over a number of years, involving site security works, leachate treatment, land fill gas management, storm water/ground water management, etc.

Progressing

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION CONT.. Environmental protection also involves taking a broader perspective looking at how we can minimise waste by:
Reducing

the amount of waste generated. Reusing the waste materials as much as possible. Recycling waste materials into new useful items. Recovering energy from waste materials. Waste Minimising

BETTER

SWM

Better SWM for environmental protection requires public, LA, voluntary/nongovernmental organisation and private sector cooperation in order to be successful LA should encourage Public participations in SWM. Reducing their SWM costs, while raising public awareness at the same time..

NEW SWM TASKS


MANY OF THESE TASKS ARE INTER-RELATED. THEY REQUIRE THE SAME OR NEW SKILL NEW SWM SKILLS INCLUDES: REDUCING WASTE SCATTERING IMPROVING GARBAGE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY IMPROVING FINAL DISPOSAL (SANITARY LAND FILLING) IMPROVED HEALTH CARE WASTE MANAGEMENT REDUCING SWM COSTS INCREASING PUBLIC PARTICIPATION PUBLIC EDUCATION/AWARENESS RAISING IMPROVED RECORD KEEPING (PERFORMANCE MONITORING)

REDUCING WASTE SCATTERING STRATEGY


Establishment of new waste discharge system Causes of waste scattering How to prevent waste scattering New waste discharge Rule Discharge Rules for difficult wastes New Garbage collection methods Vehicle Bell Collection Kerbside collection Hand-card collection Door to door collection Public bin collection Stationary trailer system

REDUCING WASTE SCATTERING STRATEGY


Public Litter basket/bins Fixed litter basket in busy street Fixed litter bins for parks, bus station, etc Movable litter bins for festival, events, etc

Improving Garbage collection efficiency Residential waste, commercial, institutional and industrial waste Market waste Street sweeping and drain cleaning Hand cards How to load waste into trailers

IMPROVING FINAL DISPOSAL


Introduction to Good Land-filling Landfilling impacts Leachate and Landfill gas Disposal methods Closure and aftercare Monitoring committee Procedure for developing new land fill sites Improving Healthcare waste management Introducion to National Policy for healthcare waste management Actual healthcare waste management

Reducing SWM costs SWM operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs, collection and transportation costs Keeping cost down.
Increasing Public Participation Get the support of Council members Inform and Educate the Public Establish effective communication channels Follow up and resolve complaints Provide reminder and feedback to the Public Typical problems for Discussion

SWM A Changing Field


SWM Components Description
Generation Production of all waste by different sources Storage And Discharge Storage: Generated waste is stored within the property of the people producing it for some time before discharge Part or all of the waste generated is put out for collection either within the property of the source itself (e.g. local hotels, some institutions) or outside the property. Storage may also some times be used to refer to waste discharged into public bins or stationary trailers for subsequent collection.

SWM Components
Collection and Transportation

Description
Discharged waste is collected by the LA and /or their contractor for transportation to processing/treatment and final disposal.

Processing and treatment

Some (often none) of the discharged waste may be transported for processing and treatments. e.g. material separation and recovery, centralised composting and biogas generation

Disposal

Most (often all) of the collected waste is discharged at the final disposal site.

STRATEGY FOR REDUCING WASTE SCATTERING


Type of Wsate 1. Residential, commercial, market, institutional and industrial wastes 1. Littering by Pedestrians 1. Waste at parks, bus station etc 1. Festival, special events, etc Prevention Measures Establishment of new waste discharge system Bell collection Kerbside collection Door to door collection Public waste bin Collection Handcart bell/horn collection Fixed public litter basket for busy street Fixed public litter bins Movable public litter bins

REDUCING WASTE SCATTERING


Bell Collection: Container handed directly to LA labourers. Permanent containers are return to owners after emptying. Kerbside collection: Closed container placed on road side for collection. Permanent containers are returned to puckup point after emptying. Door to door collection: Labourers collect garbage from inside premises. Permanents bins are returned to premises after emptying. Public bin collections: Closed disposable container placed in public places not permanent structures. Stationary trail collection: Garbage emptied into trailer by people. No permanent containers should be placed in the trailer.

REDUCING WASTE SCATTERING


Establishment of new waste discharge System Causes of waste Scattering How to Prevent waste Scattering New waste discharge rule Discharge Rules for difficult waste New Garbage Collection methods Sanitary Trailer System

REDUCING WASTE SCATTERING


Public Litter Bins These bins for Litter: e.g. Lunch packet, leftover, food packaging, lottery tickets, etc. The bin should be small/medium in size The both size of the bins and distance between them depends on how busy the location. The bins must also be emptied often The final number, size and location of bins must take all these factors into account. Fixing the bins in the ground/concrete flat form Putting holes in the bottom of the bins Marking a nearby resident/shop owner responsible for the bins.

REDUCING WASTE SCATTERING

Improving

Garbage collection efficiency Poor Garbage storage / discharge Inappropriate waste transfer from Handcart to two wheel tractors Inappropriate waste transfer from two wheel tractor to four wheel tractor

POTENTIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR DIFFERENT LEVELS OF LAND-FILLING


Landfilling Indicative Requirements stage Controlled Application of daily soil cover (100 150 mm) Tipping Fill using the cell method to minimise the active filling area and reduced leachate generation. Chemical spraying to control pests and possibly odour. Band on burning waste. Installation of movable net fence. Establishment of temporary access road. Full-time site supervisor. Vehicle trips recording system. Organization of scavenging activities at site (if relevant). Application of final cover soil (300 600mm) to completely filled areas.

Landfilling stage Sanitary land filling(level 1)

Indicative Requirements As for controlled tipping plus the following: Site clearing, prior to land filling. Establishment of all weather access and onsite roading. Full-time tractor wheel loader for waste placement and compaction. Development of basic Site Management Plan. Enclosure of the active working area with a bund to divert storm water from it, as appropriate. Diversion of stormwater from surrounding areas away from the site and provision of onsite storm water drainage, as appropriate.

Landfilling Indicative Requirements stage Sanitary Basic facilities and activites as per controlled tipping landfilling and level 1 sanitary landfilling with the following (level 2) changes/additions: Preparation of comprehensive landfill management plan. Provision of tarmac access road. Excavation to maximize the available filling areas within site constraints and to facilitate landfill liner construction. Installation of a low permeability clay landfill linear, overlain by a Leachate collection/drainage layer and protective soil cover. Bulldozer for waste placement and compaction.

Landfilling stage

Indicative Requirements

Sanitary Provision of more advanced Leachate landfilling treatment facilities capable of meeting (level 2) stricter environmental discharge standards. Turfing and benching finished slopes and restoration of the landfill on completion of filling. Provision of passive landfill gas vents. Staff amenities. Environmental monitoring (e.g. Down gradient groundwater well)

Landfilling stage Sanitary landfilling (level 3)

Indicative Requirements As for previous levels with the following additions: Advanced operational practices, including a weighbridge, water truck for dust suppression and Leachate/groundwater /air monitoring. Compactor for waste placement and compaction. Creation of a more impermeable bottom liner by addition of a 1.5 mm membrane liner above the clay liner. Stormwater treatment for sediment management Indicative Requirements As for previous levels plus a landfill gas reticulation and power generation system.

Landfilling stage Sanitary landfilling + energy recovery (level 4)

PROCEDURES FOR DEVELOPING NEW LANDFILL SITE


of new landfill site (3 6 month) Topographic and geological survey (3 months plus) Design of sanitary ladfill facilities (6 month) Initial environmental examination (IEE) or Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) (6 months +) Land acquisition (3 -12 months) Agreement from neighbours (3 18 months) Construction of sanitary landfill site (6 month)
Identification

MONITORING COMMITTEE
Once

before any construction or upgrading works are started in order to understand and record the original condition. Every month during the first six months of operation. After this time, if the monitoring committee judges that performance is good, the monitoring frequency may be reduced. However, monitoring should be done at least every three months.

RECOMMENDED MONITORING FREQUENCIES


Once

before any construction or upgrading works are started in order to understand and record the original conditions Every month during the first six months of operations After this time If the monitoring committee judges that performance is good, the monitoring frequency may be reduced. However monitoring should be done at least every three months.

CLOSURE AND AFTERCARE


Appling final cover of at least 600 mm soil over the whole landfill. Landscaping of the entire landfill, according to the final land use, including benching and turfing or vegetating finished slopes. Regular inspections and maintenance, particularly of the Leachate collection and treatment system, gas vents, stormwater drainage and landfill settlement. Remedial actions should be taken to address any problems, as required. Monitoring committee inspections at say yearly intervals, decreasing to 2-5 years over time. Ongoing environmental monitoring.