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Mr. R.D.


Mr. R.D.Pennathur

Steels containing 10.5 - 30% Chromium The chromium oxide forms a passive layer on the surface which is adherent and regenerative. This prevents corrosive attack and gives the steel its stainless property. Minimum 10.5% Cr needed to protect against atmospheric corrosion. Elements like Ni, Mo, Cu, Nb, Ti etc added to improve mechanical properties and corrosion resistance Do not resist corrosion in strongly reducing media eg.HCl, hot phosphoric acid etc.
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Martensitic Ferritic

Duplex (Austenite +Ferrite) Precipitation hardening
Mr. R.D.Pennathur

Cr 16 26% / Ni 6 26% AISI 304, 310, 316, 321 & 347 grades Austenitic structure gives good weldability with excellent ductility and toughness down to cryogenic temperatures. Nickel improves general corrosion resistance Widely used for chemical, petrochemical, fertilizer plant and food processing. Also used for nuclear and cryogenic plant

Mr. R.D.Pennathur

Has 50% higher coefficient of linear expansion, than carbon steels Has poor thermal conductivity, 30% less than carbon steels Results in much higher distortion after welding

Steps to prevent distortion

closer tacking greater use of jigs and fixtures use of balanced and skip welding techniques use of copper chill bars to help remove heat limit heat input by use of low currents and stringer beads
Mr. R.D.Pennathur

All standard welding processes ie MMAW, GMAW, FCAW, GTAW, PAW and SAW maybe used depending on the application. Generally corresponding grades of filler metal composition are used to match corrosion and / or heat resistance properties along with strength. Weldability considerations are similar for wrought and cast alloys
Mr. R.D.Pennathur

Mr. R.D.Pennathur

The Schaeffler diagram is useful to determine the phases present in a stainless steel related to its composition. For castings the Schoefer diagram is more accurate for estimating ferrite content In 1973 the WRC-Delong diagram was developed which included the effect of nitrogen as an austenite stabiliser, as 30 X %N. It also showed Ferrite numbers in addition to percent ferrite In 1992 the WRC-1992 diagram was developed and replaced the Delong diagram as most acurate in predicting ferrite particularly for higher alloyed grades.
Ni equivalent = %Ni + 35 X %C + 20 X %N + 0.25 x %Cu Cr equivalent = %Cr + %Mo + 0.7 X %Nb

Ferrite may also be directly measured by magnetic ferrite meters and metallographic means. Mr. R.D.Pennathur

Welding austenitic stainless steels to carbon and low alloy steels are established methods in the process and construction industries. Dissimilar metal welds involving stainless steels can be done using most full fusion weld methods, including TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) and MIG (Metal Inert Gas). Weld procedures using filler (consumable) enable better control of joint corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. In selecting the weld filler, the joint is considered as being stainless, rather than the carbon steel. Over-alloyed fillers are used to avoid dilution of the alloying elements in the fusion zone of the parent stainless steel. Dissimilar metal combinations The most common combinations of dissimilar steels involving stainless steel are plain carbon or low alloy structural grades and austenitic stainless steel grades such as 1.4301 (304) or 1.4401 (316).
Mr. R.D.Pennathur

When a weld is made using a filler wire or consumable, there is a mixture in the weld consisting of approximately 20% parent metal and 80% filler metal alloy ( percentage depends on welding process, type of joint and welding parameters). Any reduction in alloy content of 304 / 316 type austenitic is likely to cause the formation of matensite on cooling. This could lead to cracking problems and poor ductility. To avoid this problem an overalloyed filler metal is used, such as a 309, which should still form austenite on cooling providing dilution is not excessive. The Shaeffler diagram can be used to determine the type of microstructure that can be expected when a filler metal and parent metal of differing compositions are mixed together in a weld.

Mr. R.D.Pennathur


Nickel Equivalent = %Ni + 30%C + 0.5%Mn Chrome Equivalent = %Cr + Mo + 1.5%Si + 0.5%Nb Example, a typical 304L = 18.2%Cr, 10.1%Ni, 1.2%Mn, 0.4%Si, 0.02%C Ni Equiv = 10.1 + 30 x 0.02 + 0.5 x 1.2 = 11.3 Cr Equiv = 18.2 + 0 + 1.5 x 0.4 + 0 = 18.8 A typical 309L welding consumable Ni Equiv = 14.35, Cr Equiv = 24.9 The main disadvantage with this diagram is that it does not represent Nitrogen, which is a very strong Austenite former. Mr. R.D.Pennathur

The ferrite number uses magnetic attraction as a means of measuring the proportion of delta ferrite present. The ferrite number is plotted on a modified Shaeffler diagram, the Delong Diagram. The Chrome and Nickel equivalent is the same as that used for the Shaeffler diagram, except that the Nickel equivalent includes the addition of 30 times the Nitrogen content.

The Shaeffler diagram above illustrates a carbon steel C.S , welded with 304L filler. Point A represents the anticipated composition of the weld metal, if it consists of a mixture of filler metal and 25% parent metal. This diluted weld, according to the diagram, will contain martensite. This problem can be overcome if a higher alloyed filler is used, such as a 309L, which has a higher nickel and chrome equivalent that will tend to pull point A into the austenite region. Mr. R.D.Pennathur

Causes Of High Dilution High welding Current. High current welding processes, such as Submerged Arc Welding can cause high dilution. Thin Material. Thin sheet TIG welded can give rise to high dilution levels. Joint Preparation. Square preps generate very high dilution. This can be reduced by carefully buttering the joint face with high alloy filler Mr. R.D.Pennathur metal.

Selection of welding consumables (filler)

Ambient service temperatures
Although a standard 308 type filler can be used for joining a 304 type stainless steel to carbon steel, more highly alloyed fillers, such as the 309 type (23 12l to bs en 12072) are preferable. This is should help avoid cracking in the weld dilution zone that can be a problem if a 308 type (19 9l to bs en 12072) filler is used, where there can be too low a ferrite level and martensite may also be formed on cooling.

Elevated temperature services temperatures (over 425c)

If the welded parts are for higher temperature service, then the differences in thermal expansion rates of the steels and filler can lead to thermal fatigue cracking. Long exposure times at these temperatures of welds with enhanced ferrite levels can result in embrittlement due to sigma phase formation. Nickel based fillers (inconel) produce welds with lower thermal expansion rates than the stainless steel fillers and so may be preferable. Mr. R.D.Pennathur

Based on above study ,we can infer that : For welding of SS to SS ,the consumable/Filler metal used shall be of SS variety of lower Specification

For Welding of CS to SS ,the grade filler can be of same specification/lower specification of SS but not very safe practice as chances of Brittle Intermetalic Compound formation are quite high. For welding of CS to SS ,E309/ER309 fillers are most commonly used as they form 18/8 composition in weld metal after dilution with MS . For CS to SS ,for High Temp service Inconel type of consumables are used to avoid Sigma Phase formation & also avoid thermal fatigue. Mr. R.D.Pennathur

We are one of the renowned manufacturers of various grades of welding consumables which are second to none in terms of quality. We have the most modern manufacturing facility equipped with latest sophisticated machinery at Pondicherry, India We are manufacturing a vast range of Shielded Metal Arc Welding Electrodes and Flux Cored Arc Welding Electrodes. We also supply tested GMAW and GTAW welding consumables for all the applications. Our hardworking team would always be interested in any opportunity to cater your requirement of welding consumables. Currently we are supplying massive quantity of welding consumables to many world class EPC companies in various range of welding consumables including Carbon steel, Low Temperature Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel, Low alloy steel etc. If at all the need arises for a special consumable which is not in our arsenal, our R&D team is fully equipped in developing special electrodes to meet Service Requirements, Impact Test Requirements with strict chemistry controls and as welded hardness test criteria. We built quality and consistency in our consumables. Our manufacturing facility always had the market pulse to meet its demands and fast track delivery requirements without compromising quality and consistency. Willing to be a part of your esteemed organization, we took this privilege to approach and request your kind consideration for providing opportunity to Mr. R.D.Pennathur MAILAM INDIA LTD for the following consumables.