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Submitted by: Capadiso, Ralfonzel Chico, Carmina Pastrana, Pilipina Real, Rachelle G. B.S. ARCH V-3D Submitted to: Archt. Rey S. Gabitan
The following classification is recommended in planning open spaces:
• SEPARATORS AND BUFFERS
Those are linear open spaces which are used for movement to separate incompatible elements or uses to control pollution or nuisance and for reasons of identifying and defining development areas. 1. Corridor separators- green strips on right of way of highways.
PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS
These may range from neighborhood to municipal or city park which cater to the recreational needs of the residents of the community. The types are: a.) Playlot - The playlot serves pre-school children from 5 years old and under. It is usually developed as part of a playground in one corner or adjacent to residential blocks (250 meters. away) for management and supervision for backyard playgrounds in high- density areas. Its size depends upon the available open space and the number of prospective users. Facilities for playlots include slides, seesaws, swings and climbing apparatuses. Other important features are grass plots, land squares, paved walks and benches.
b.) Playground - This serves all ages and family groups but primarily centering around children from 5-15 years old. It usually contains a neighborhood park for passive recreation for all ages, a play lot and a center for special events like festivals, holidays, celebrations and community affairs. Preferred locations are at the center of the neighborhood or adjacent to the elementary school. Children must not across major streets nor be exposed to hazards in their movements from home to playground or from school to playground. Playground facilities include a park area for sitting, play courts, open spaces for informal play, recreational hall, a landscapes buffer to protect the neighborhood from playground noise and sufficient lighting for evening use. c.) Neighborhood Park - This provides a passive recreation area within walking distance from homes. Its area requirement could be based from the NHA’s prescription for open spaces in residential subdivision. Its target population covers all ages particularly parents and children and as such, must have facilities both for passive and active recreation (thus, its proximity to playground is preferred).
d.) Community Park - As with neighborhood park, community park serves the recreational needs of either the city or municipality and may consist of squares, play courts, gardens, lagoons, and recreational hall. Its location must be central to the community and preferably complementing the town’s civic and commercial center. e.) Playfield/ Athletic Field - This provides for active organized sports for youth and adults from 15 years old and above including family groups. Ideal location is an area adjacent to high schools, convenient to public transportation and at least 0.50 to 1 kilometer away from residential areas. Serving a population of 15,000, its facilities and equipment include a children’s playground, play courts, tract and field for men’s or women’s sports, swimming pool and area for lawn games. Special features are landscaped areas, parking lots, night lighting, toilet and bath.
Preservation/ Restoration Areas
These areas are categorized into: 1. Natural Environment Areas – natural, undisturbed, and scenic areas suitable for recreation, scientific and ecological significance consisting of forest, water resources and other land forms. Development emphasizes preservation of natural features in their natural state. 2. Historical and Cultural Sites – Although these artefacts do not provide recreational opportunities in the sense, they are closely associated with education and travel. Conservation/restoration works are the primary objectives, aside from protection of sites from deterioration, overuse and neglect. These artefacts may consist of religious and governmental buildings, palaces and fortresses and other landmarks such as towers and monuments and statues.
FUNCTION OF PARK AND OPEN SPACE SYSTEM
Park and open space lands contribute to the health and safety of a community in many ways. A generous provision of open spaces in urban area contributes to a psycho-socio “balance” of the urban population. Properly located, they can control flood damage, help preserve surface water quality, replenish ground water supply, reduce air pollution, and preserve high value crop lands, maintain a buffer between conflicting land uses and beautify the community. Park and open space lands are also an economic asset to a community. They are important factors in attracting new industry and commerce to a community, or in encouraging its expansion. Studies tend to show that recreation and leisure facilities of a community are important considerations in business location decisions. Finally, a park and open system affects the growth and form of the city, and does much towards determining whether the city is an attractive or unattractive place to live in.
The site selection of sites for preservation as open space or development as recreation has to consider these factors: • Topography The land topography has to be in accord with the facilities proposed. There should be no special drainage problem nor should it require extensive levelling. Sites should take advantage of any natural features which can act as buffer between active recreation areas and surrounding development. Parks should utilize unusual features such as waterfalls, cliffs, streams, valleys and other irregularities of topography. • Size and Shape The proposed site should be adequate in size and suitable in shape to house all facilities and equipment needed to carry out the propose program and to provide a separation between areas for different age groups. Ample space in active recreation areas also provides a buffer between the areas and the surrounding residential sections.
• Acquisition Costs and Extent of Demolition Land with the lowest possible land costs should be chosen. Sites to be acquired should entail the least possible demolition of buildings and dislocation of families. Once an area is designated an open space for development or preservation, the type of development (play lot, park, playground or reservation) will depend on the following factors: a.) Land valuation b.) Accessibility to target population c.) Socio-economic characteristics d.) Taste and preferences of residents e.) Design, safety and aesthetic standards
The principles applicable to parks and open space planning for a community are: The type of park and open space facilities must be scaled to the needs of the area and population served both present and future. In planning for parks and open space particular attention must be given to linking the community’s high and low areas so as to preserve and enhance the community’s water resources to prevent flooding and avoid drainage problems. The various types of park facilities must be available and reasonably accessible to all social and economic groups and geographic areas of the community. Acquisition of parks and open space land must occur in advance of development to provide for reasonable acquisition cost and facilities site planning for development. Means of reserving lands for future open space requirements for controlling and enhancing urban development must be explore to ensure least cost to the public.
Particular attention must be accorded to coordinating the land acquisition, land use control and planning programs of all national, regional and local agencies concerned parks and conservation. 6. Parks and recreational areas must be integrated with the town center and the school playground for optimum use. 7. Preservation of natural waterways, watershed areas and natural features for the maintenance of wildlife and marine habitats; its protection from pollution and; provision of access for the public must be given special attention. 8. Park and open space plans must reflect the community’s financial program, but flexible enough to take advantage of any financial opportunities that may occur.
Consideration must be given to population density and the availability of public transportation in the location of new facilities. The acquisition of large tracks in far flung areas will not meet the recreation needs of the great majority of cities. One half hour driving time to reach a major recreation or open space area is good accessibility standard. This should be closer for neighborhood and community parks/playgrounds.
It is open desirable in large recreation centers and parks to construct parking areas in general location near the facilities which have the highest concentration of users. This will also make it easier to blend the parking areas into the landscape. Where possible, parking areas should be designed so as not to interface with normal pedestrian use of the area. In the case of large parking areas, it is necessary to make a study of the traffic pattern in the vicinity in order to facilitate the movement of the traffic to and from the parking area.
Table I ACTIVE OUTDOOR RECREATION
Type Ages Served Desired Optimum Usable Size Size Population Ratio Maximum Walking Distance 60-80 m. Ideal Location Facilities Other Features
3 years 232-464 sq. old below m.
Within the same block, central to the residential area
Slides, swings, seesaws, climbing apparatus, tunnels.
Grass plots for games, paved walks for wheeled toys, benches for guardians keeping watch.
0.5 has./ 1000 0.8 km. population
Separate block must not require children to cross major streets or meet hazardous conditions.
Park for benches, Multi-purpose tables for snacks, hall. and games. Open Landscaped spaces for informal buffer strip. games: tennis courts, Drinking softball fields, fountains. basketball/ volleyball Sufficient courts, quiet game lighting for night area. time use. Children’s Landscaped playground, games, areas, parking courts, ball fields, lots, night swimming pools. lighting, comfort Area for lawn games. rooms, shower/ Track. locker/ dressing rooms.
16-24 4-8 has. years and above (includes family groups)
Minimum of 0.5 1-15 km. has. Per 1000 population
Adjoining residential area, may serve as buffer between residences and industry, convenient to public transportation; more effective if combined with high school.
Table II PASSIVE/ ACTIVE OUTDOOR RECREATION
Type Groups Ages Desired Optimum Served Usable Size Size Population Served Service Radius/ Ideal Location Facilities Travel Distance Other Features
Serves a population of 2,000-5,000
Separate open Outdoor pool space or athletic field game incorporated as areas part of playground, part of elementary school.
Off-street Parking. Buffer strip. Landscaping. Lawns Trees and shrubbery Benches walks
Neighborhood Recreation Center
Youth & Adult 0.4 has. population
Within Game room for Elementary active games School grounds Pingipong Billiards Bowling Reading room for meetings and workshop Social room for neighborhood gettogethers
Groups Ages Served
Desired Usable Optimum Size Population Size Served
Table II (Con’t)
Service Ideal Location Facilities Radius/ Travel Distance Athletic field, Children’s playground, tennis court, open game areas, indoor or outdoor pool
All ages neighborhood groups
Between 15,000 0.8-16 km. 2.4 Centrally & 35,000 75,000 km. in cities located in or in large cities part of school large cities
Recreation Building at least 2,322 sq. m. if not part of school building. Parking area, landscaping, buffer stris.
Community Recreation Center
Year round 0.5 has. diversified activities for all ages and interest groups of the community
4-5 0.5 km. travel Near high neighborhood of distance or 20- school or within 20,000 30 min. by playfield area population private or public transportation
Gymnasium Active game with bleachers, rooms for showers, billiards, lockers and bowling, ping dressing rooms, pong. Reading, auditorium with music room, stage, social snack counter, room for others. meetings, gatherings and parties
Table III STANDARDS FOR RECREATION ACTIVITIES
Types of Activity Active Recreation Children’s Play Area (within equipment)
Space Requirements for Activity Ideal Size of Space Required for per Population Activity
Recreational Area Within Activity may be Located
0.2 has. /1000 population
2) Field Play Areas for Young Children 3) Older Children-Adult Field Sports Activities 4) Tennis-Outdoor Basketball and other Court Sports 5) 6) Swimming Major Boating Activities
0.6 has. /1000 population 0.6 has. /1000 population 0.4 has. /5000 population 1 outdoor pool /2,500 40.5 has. /50,000 4.0 has. /1000 population 1-18 hole course per 50,000 population
1.2 has. 6.1 has. 0.8 has. Competition size and wading pool 40.5 has. and over 202-404 hectares 48.0 has.
Playground-Neighborhood Parks, community parks, school playgrounds - do Playfield-Community Park District Park Playfield-Community Park - do District Park-Regional Park and Reservation Community Park-District Park Large District Park-Regional Park
7) Hiking-Camping-Horseback Riding-Nature Study 8) Golfing
1.6 has. /1000 population
Table III (Con’t)
Types of Activity Passive Water Sports Space Requirements for Activity Ideal Size of Space Required for per Population Activity 1 lake or lagoon per 25,000 population 0.4 has. /1000 population 40.50 hectares Recreational Area Within Activity may be Located Community Park Special Regional Reservation Large District Park of Special Facility
Zoos, Arboretums Botanical Gardens
Other Parking at Recreational areas Indoor Recreation Center Outdoor, Theaters, Band Shells 0.4 has. /1000 population 0.4 has. /1000 population 0.4 has. /25000 population varies 4-8 hectares 2 hectares Playfields, Community District and Regional Park Community Park District Park