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Creation of Electron Hole pairs in a Si crystal

Electron Hole pairs in a Si crystal

Types of current in a pure Semiconductor
 Electron Current
 Hole Current

Electron Current
 In Intrinsic Si, it is produced by the movement of thermally generated free electrons

Hole Current in Intrinsic Si

Extrinsic Semiconductors
 Two Types

1. N type Semiconductors 2. P type Semiconductors

N Type Semiconductor
Pentavalent Impurity Atom in a Si Crystal Structure

N Type Semiconductor

P Type Semiconductor
Trivalent Impurity Atom in a Si Crystal Structure

P Type Semiconductor

N type & P type Semiconductors

Effect of donor impurities on the Energy Band Structure

Effect of Acceptor impurities on the Energy Band Structure

Change in the Energy band diagram due to doping

Effect of Temperature on Semiconductor
Intrinsic Semiconductor  As temp , more electron-hole pairs are produced  Conductivity increases with increase in temp  That is resistivity decreases with increase in temp  Hence Semiconductors have –ve temp coefficient of resistance

Effect of Temperature on Semiconductor
 P-type Semiconductor???
 N-type Semiconductor???

Law of Mass Action
 Under Thermal Equilibrium for any semiconductor, the product of the number of holes and number of electrons is constant & is independent of the amount of donor & acceptor impurity doping

Current Flow Information

Current Flow Information

Reference
 Electronic devices by Floyd  Electronic devices & circuits by Salivahanan