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TRANSISTOR

Transistor
•It was invented by Dr. William Shockley, Walter Brattain & Dr. John Bardeen at Bell Laboratory in America •The very first Transistor was called a Point Contact Transistor •Transistor = Transfer + Resistor

Transistor
• Two Types 1. Bipolar Junction Transistor 2. Field Effect Transistor • Bipolar Junction Transistor is of 2 types: 1. NPN Transistor 2. PNP Transistor

Bipolar Junction Transistor Construction

Bipolar Junction Transistor Construction

Parameters
Size Doping

Emitter
Moderate Heavily

Base
Small Lightly

Collector
Large Moderately

Diode Representation of BJT

BJT Symbols

Modes of Operation
Mode Active Saturation Emitter-Base Junction Forward Forward Collector-Base Junction Reverse Forward

Cut off Inverted

Reverse Reverse

Reverse Forward

Unbiased npn Transistor

NPN Transistor Working

PNP Transistor Working

Origin of the Word Transistor
• A transistor transfers a signal from a low resistance to high resistance region • The prefix “ Trans” means the signal transfer property of the device • While “istor ” classifies it as a solid element in the same general family with resistors

Note that the Emitter is shown by an arrow which indicates the direction of conventional current flow with forward bias

PNP Transistor Current Components

PNP Transistor Current Components
• • • • • • IE = InE + IpE ICO = I(CO)p + I(CO)n IpC = α IE IC = ICO + IpC IC = ICO + α IE 1 IE = IC + IB 2 IC = (β+1)ICO + β IB 3

NPN Transistor Current Components

NPN Transistor Current Components
• • • • • • IE = InE + IpE ICO = I(CO)p + I(CO)n InC = α IE IC = ICO + InC IC = ICO + α IE 1 IE = IC + IB 2 IC = (β+1)ICO + β IB 3

Reference
• Electronic devices & circuits by Salivahanan • Electronic devices & circuits by Millman & Halkias • Electronic devices & circuits by David A Bell