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Film IC

Integrated Circuit (IC)
• It is a miniature, low cost electronic circuit consisting of active and passive component fabricated together on a single crystal of Si

Classification of IC
• Based on the fabrication techniques used, ! "onolithic IC #! $ybrid IC %! Film IC

Classification of IC
• Based on the chip si&e, ! SSI #! "SI %! 'SI (! )'SI *! +'S' ,! -S'

Classification of IC
• .n the basis of application ICs ! 'inear IC #! /igital IC

Film IC
Thin Film Circuits
• /efined as the ones with thic0ness varying from *1 to #1,111 2rmstrong • 3he materials used to ma0e thin film are generally deposited onto substrates in a vacuum chamber • It provides greater precision in manufacturing but is more costly than thic0 film technology

Thick Film Circuits
3hic0ness )ary from #*111 to ,#*111 2rmstrong • It is made by the process of screen printing • It produces cheap and rugged resistors, capacitors and conducting patterns! • 3he processing equipment for thic0 c0ts is ine4pensive and easy to use

/eposition of thin film
• )arious "ethods in use for it5 ! )acuum 6vaporation #! Sputtering %! 7lating 3echnique 4. Silk Screening 5. Gas Plating

• 7rocess is performed at a low pressure (*8 19: torr) and in a vacuum! • 2 potential of # to * 0ilovolts is applied between the cathode and anode! • 3he source material (Sputtering target) and the Si wafer form opposing plates connected to a high voltage power supply! • /uring deposition, the chamber is first evacuated of air ; then a low pressure amount of sputtering gas is admitted into the chamber!

Cathode Sputtering

Cathode Sputtering
• 2pplying an interelectrode voltage ioni&es the 2r gas ; creates a plasma between the plates • 3he positive gas ions are attracted to the cathode and they hit the cathode with high 0inetic energy thereby releasing atoms of the cathode material!

Sputtering process

Cont!
• 3hese atoms ultimately hit the substrate placed at the anode with sufficient velocity so as to cause good adhesion!

Cont!
• <hen the sputtering cycle is completed, the vacuum in the chamber is released and the wafers are removed! 3he mas0s are then removed from the wafers, leaving a deposit that forms the passive elements of the circuit, as shown in figure

7lating 3echnique
Electroplating
• It is a process of coating an ob=ect with one or more layers of different metals • Cathode ; 2node, in this case substrate and metal, are immersed in an electrolytic solution! • <hen /C is passed through the solution, >ve metal ions migrate from the anode and deposit on the cathode • Suitable for ma0ing conduction films of 2u or Cu

Electroless plating • $ere a metal ion in solution is reduced to the free metal and deposited as a metallic coating without the use of an electric current! • 3his process can be used to deposit metals on any substrate such as glass, ceramic, plastic etc

3hic0 Film 3echnology
• Basic thic0 film process5 ! Screen 7rinting #! Ceramic firing

Screen 7rinting
• $ere we use fine mesh stainless steel screen having *1 to (11 wire?inch and mounted on 2l frame so as to 0eep the screen under uniform tension! • 3he screen is coated with a photo9sensitive emulsion which polymeri&es on e4posure to light! • 2 mas0 of the desired pattern is made and 0ept on it!

Screen Printing
• The screen is now placed on a substrate and carefully aligned. • Circuit components such as resistors and conductors are then deposited on the substrate through screening process which is carried out by a squeegee driven across the patterned screen at a constant rate! • 3he squeegee forces an in0 in the paste form through the openings on the screen! • 3he nature of the paste so used depends on whether resistor or conductor is to be fabricated!

Figure for mesh stainless steel screen (ordinary)

Ceramic Firing
• 2fter Screening, the paste dries up! • 3he desired physical and electrical properties from the thic0 films so deposited are now developed by thermal processing usually referred to as firing! • It uses a furnace or 0iln where the temperature varies from *11o C to 111o C in four to eight separately controlled &ones! • /uring the firing process, the organic binders of the thic0 film paste vapori&es and the remaining material fuses with the substrate, thereby, becoming a part of the ceramic structure!

@eference
• 'inear Integrated Circuits by /! @oy Choudhury ; S B Aain