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Introduction to OD


What is Organisation?
 Group of People

 Organise for particular purpose
 Co-operate with all for achieving desire goals  Made up of varied functions

 Each person co-operate with others and achieve desired goals
 Types of organistaion  Problems faced by organisation

Overview of OD
 What is Organisation Development?

 No action without research and no reasearch without action.
 Role of OD consultant  Involve client in process

 Have domain knowledge of Organisation Behaviour
 Maintain relation with client

Distinguishing features of OD  It works on “Helping Model” concept  Purchase of Expertise  Doctor Patient Model  Process Consultation  Process Coersion .

Generations of OD  First generation OD  Second generation OD  Third generation OD .

First Generation OD  Deals with adaptive and incremental change in organisation  Deals with micro aspects of organisation  It strove to improve organisation’s function .

Major Steps in First Generation OD  Emergence of action research  Application of sensitivity/laboratory/T-group training  Invention of survey feedback  Evolution of Tavistock’s sociotechnical and socioeconomical issues .

this generation took the cognizance of the impact of leadership on organsational change (Bartunek. and Seo 2008) . It pays explicit attention to the organisation`s env and org`s alignment with it.Second generation OD  it deals with macro aspects of organisations to help them respond effectively to the external needs in terms of competitiors. Austin. technology. stakeholders etc.

 Organisation transformation  TQM (Total Quality Movement)  Visioning  Future Search  Getting the “ Whole System “ in room .g.Second generation OD  take organisation as unit of analysis  look for large scale changes in organisation for e.

Multi level.Second generation OD  Organization Transformation: Multi-dimentional . discontinuous and radical in nature  TQM: It involves employee involvement Demand Network Decision making power to lower level in organization Reduce barriers between people Continuous Improvement  Visioning: Provides alignment and gaining commitment to achieve common goal Personal vision of employee must be linked with organisational vision (Senge 1990) .

later jointly action plan is prepared  Getting the “Whole System “ in the room: By Marvin Weisbord (1987) .Second generation OD  Future Search conference: By Marvin Weisbord (1989) It is 2-3 day conference where inputs are taken from participants to prepare database.

Third Generation OD  Participative in nature  Learning Organization  Appreciative inquiry  It utilizes past experience in improving the OE .

Third generation OD  Learning organization:  An organization which continuously expanding its capacity to learn  Learning can be done at individual or Group/Team or organization level  Appreciative Inquiry: It is sequence of 5 processes ( Watkins and Mohr 2001) a) Choose the positive as focus of inquiry b) Inquire into stories of life giving forces c) Locate themes that appear in stories and select future enquiry d) Find an innovative way to create that future topics for .

Implementation Motors Associated with OD .

Defining organization development  Classic definition by Backhard (1969) An effort 1) Planned. to 4) Increase organizational effectiveness and health through 5) Planned interventions in the organization’s process. using behavioral science knowledge. and 3) Managed from the top. 2) Organization-wide. .

led and supported by top management. learning. collaborative management of organization culture. .with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations. empowerment.Defining organization development  Definition by French and Bell (2001)  A long-term effort.using the consultantfacilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioral science. and problem solving process. including action research. to improve an organization’s visioning. through an ongoing.

structure. Applies behavior science to achieve planned change  Culture. processes  Increased organizational effectiveness and individual development (Vaill-1989) . strategy.

team building activities. meeting agenda. selection of right change leaders.. mission. org. target setting.OD Process vs OD Content OD Process How it is being done Sequence of activities undertaken by OD consultant while intervening in the client system OD Content What is being done Vision. effective execution of team building exercises. strategy. individual/group performance Interventional content Collection of information. Organizational content Probe into Org. training of organizational members Help in identifying / conceptualizing the problem and its root cause Help to address the problem .’s mission. culture. team’s strategy.

Phases of Organization Development Evaluatio n Entry • Alternatives. measure & Intervention Contracting • Rectify the problem Client . gathering and • Actions presenting – desired change roles & determine the effect of the • Individual development & consultant data analyzing Environment – non responsibility and actions organizational effectiveness and defensive and agreement situation nonreactive Planning change Diagnosis Feedback . deepen consequences and Gaps . phase • Critical Fact finding –and data implications understanding Expectations . Engage .

Key Characteristics of OD  Applied behavior science  Systems context  Humanistic field .Pareek(1996) introduced framework of OCTAPACE to define the values associated with OD  Participatory approach to build client’s capability  Normative – reeducative strategy (French.Bell and Zawacki 2000) 1) The power coercive approach 2) The Empirical.rational approach  Cyclical approach to sustainable change  Helping and collaborative relationship with client  Organizational effectiveness .

5. including the formal leader Intergroup configurations (two or more interfacing group) All of the managers of the organization Everybody in the total organization . 4. Individuals Dyads or triads A self managed team An intact work team. 3. 2.Typology of OD interventions  According to the size and complexity of client group 1. 7. 6.


Typology of OD interventions  According to the type of casual mechanism underlying the intervention 1. Confrontation 5. Awareness of changing norms 3. Education . Interaction and communication 4. Feedback 2.

2. 5. 6. 3. 9.Typology of OD interventions  According to the nature or type of intervention 1. 4. 7. Discrepancy intervention Theory intervention Procedural intervention Relationship intervention Experimentation intervention Dilemma intervention Perspective intervention Organization structure intervention Cultural intervention . 8.

Future Challenges  Greiner and Cummings (2004) identified six red flags which threaten OD’s relevance in future. 1) Strategic planning 2) Mergers and acquisitions 3) Top management decision making 4) Globalization 5) Corporate Governance 6) Personal integrity .

 Beer and Nohria’s argument (2000): “Theory E (based on economic values)” & “Theory O (based on organizational capabilities)” .

Two Archetype of Change Dimension of change Goals Theory E Maximize shareholder value Theory O Develop Organizational capabilities Theory E and O combined Explicitly embrace the paradox between economic value and oraganization capability Set direction from top & engage the people below Leadership Manage change from top-down Emphasize structure and system Encourage participation from bottom-up Focus Process Reward System Plan and establish program Motivate through financial incentives Consultants analyze problems shape solutions Build up corporate culture: Focus simultaneously on Employee's behavior and the hard (process & attitude structure) and the soft (corporate culture) Experiment and evolve Plan for spontaneity Motivate thorugh commitment (Use pay as fair exchange) Consultants support management in shaping their own solutions Use incentives to reinforce change but not drive it Consultants are expert resouces who empower people Use of consultants .

etc.deKler’s (2007) argument:  Adverse effect of emotional trauma (due to downsizing. mergers and acquisitions.)  Acknowledge existence of emotional trauma  Provide a safe climate for employees Tom Peter’s concept of “Liberation management”:  Forecasting of Ad hoc teams  “Multifunctional projectization and horizontal system”  Reconceptualizing the role of people in organization . restructuring.

it is yet to transgress from continuous to discontinuous change. Kotter & Schlesinger’s approach:  Manipulation & co-option  Implicit and explicit coercion .  Discontinuous change mandates alteration in the organizational structure. OD has progressed from micro to macro aspects but. culture and processes to realign the strategy to suit the environment – participative change.

Burke’s agenda for OD consultants:  A sense of urgency to address the modern organizational consulting issues by defying the conventional models and challenging the long established foundation of the field. .  New times requires new paradigms to encounter organizational problems.

Coach and provide feedback to executives regarding congruence between their words and actions as the precursor to building trust. organizational structure. measurements and incentives. Do not restrict your role to only facilitating meetings/interactions. promote interaction and relationship among employees at all levels. Revisit the career development literature and link it with OD practices. and conflict resolution. Assess the implications for OD in the face of stockholder wealth creation and financial goals as the dominant values. It is important because company loyaly does not receive adequate attention. initiate meetings. These actions will foster employer-employee relationship. Community Work to bind people together. With the surge in globalization and M&As. their personal and professional goals. Trust Espouse and practice openness to build trust. Cultural clash Corporate power . Promote reward system based on merit. Provide help in providing regular contract feedback to employees. Increase knowledge of cross-cultural dynamics and hone skills in negotiation. Review and rethink about the OD values that are being confronted. Employer-employee social Seek clarity regarding task expectation and goals. conflict management. They have also been identified as levers of reengineering. etc.Consulting issue Reengineering Agenda for OD consultants Focus on specific change targets that are critical to the success of reengineering effort. Example: Roles and responsibilities. Downsizing Confront the rationale behind the decision-ensure that the organization is not cloning what is being done by others. and work life balance desired by them. Reflect on the values espoused by global corporations which are becoming more powerful than state and nations. Emphasize dignity and fairness in treatment meted out to employees. mediation. Employability Foster employability by helping employees to understand their strengths. Place emphasis on the interrelationship of cultures to avoid any potential conflict. it is imperative to integrate and manage cultural differences.

technology and environment. self-analytic. and self corrective capability in the organization comes to their rescue. OD is a journey of self renewal which propels the organization on the path of enhanced organization performance and effectiveness.Conclusion  It has become a wild goose chase due to the fast pace of change in the organization.  The participative and collaborative approach of OD empowers organizational members in managing the formidable task of implementing change with regard to the dynamic environment in which they operate. .  In a nut shell.  The development of self-reflective.

8 steps for successful organizational transportation Establishing a sense of urgency Forming a powerful guiding coalition Creating a vision • Examining market and competitive realities • Identifying and discussing crises. potential crises. or major opportunities • Assembling a group with enough power to lead the change effort • Encouraging the group to work together as a team • Creating a vision to help direct the change • Developing strategies for achieving that vision Communicating the vision • Using every vehicle possible to communicate the new vision and strategies • Teaching new behaviors by the example of the guiding coalition .

promoting. activities. • Articulating the connections between the new behaviors and corporate success • Developing the means to ensure leadership development and succession . structures.8 steps for successful organizational transportation Empowering others to act on the vision • Getting rid of obstacles to change • Changing systems or structures that seriously undermine the vision • Encouraging risk taking and nontraditional ideas. and policies that don’t fit the vision • Hiring. and actions Planning for and creating short-term wins Consolidating improvements and producing still more change Institutionalizing new approaches • Planning for visible performance improvements • Creating those improvements • Recognizing and rewarding employees involved in the improvements • Using increasing credibility to change systems. themes. and developing employees who can implement the vision • Reinvigorating the process with new projects. and change agents.

The Six-Box Model PURPOSE: What business are we in? RELATIONSHIPS: How do we manage conflict among people? With LEADERSHIP: technologies? STRUCTURE: How do we divide up the work? Dose someone keep the boxes in balance? HELPFUL MECHANISMS : Have we adequate coordinating technologies? REWARDS: Do all needed tasks have incentives? Environment .

empowering leaders Challenging the process Inspiring a shared vision Enabling others to act Modeling the way Encouraging the heart • Search for opportunities • Experiment and take risk • Envision the future • Enlist others • Foster collaboration • Strengthen others • Set the example • Plan small wins • Recognize individual contributions • Celebrate accomplishments .5 leadership practices & 10 behavioral commitments  Exhibited by successful.