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SEM:- 8th Sem ROLL No:- 8EE38 ENROLL. No.-2009/00977



Presented by: Nishar Akhter 8th SEM, Electrical Branch

CONTENTS  Introduction  Overview on SPTT  History  System Description  Rankine's cycle  Benefits of SPTT  Advantages & Disadvantages  Applications  Conclusions .

The high energy at this point of concentrated sunlight is transferred to a substance that can store the heat for later use.  Stored energy can be used to boil water for use in steam turbines.Introduction  Solar power towers generate electric power from sunlight by focusing concentrated solar radiation on a tower-mounted heat exchanger (receiver). It uses an array of flat. The more recent heat transfer material that has been successfully demonstrated is liquid sodium. allowing that energy to be stored and drawn off throughout the evening. .     Sodium is a metal with a high heat capacity. moveable mirrors (called heliostats) to focus the sun's rays upon a collector tower (the target).

. the next plants could be scaled-up to between 30 and 400 MW. Assuming success of the Solar Two project. The value of power is worth more because a power tower plant can deliver energy during peak load times when it is more valuable New peaking and intermediate power sources are needed today in many areas of the developing World. molten-salt power towers will have a high value because the thermal energy storage allows the plant to be dispatch able.Overview The largest power towers ever built are the 30 MW (Solar One and Solar Two plants). As non-polluting energy sources become more favored. One possible concern with the technology is the relatively high amount of land and water usage.

will generate (in addition to electric power) information on the design. Today. operation and maintenance of molten-salt power towers. Solar Two. performance. was the world’s largest power tower plant. During the operation of Solar One. which is currently going through its startup phase. Solar Two is expected to begin routine daily power production in late 1997.History Solar technology is not new process. Solar One. This development culminated in the Solar Two project. Its history spans from the 7thCentury B. We started out concentrating the sun’s heat with glass and mirrors to light fires. which operated from 1982 to 1988.C. research began on the more advanced molten-salt power tower design described. to today. . we have everything from solar-powered buildings to solar powered vehicles. It proved that large-scale power production with power towers was feasible.

System Description Solar power tower convert sunshine into clean electricity. which is used to move the turbine-generator. produces temperatures of approx. This way thermal energy is converted into electricity. allows storing the heat when the sun is behind clouds or even at night. But the difference is that the method in which molten salt is used. which saves the energy for later use. Heated water converts to steam. The gained thermal energy can be used for heating water or molten salt. . sun-tracking mirrors commonly referred as heliostats to focus sunlight on a receiver at the top of a tower. Water is the oldest and simplest way for heat transfer. The technology uses many large. concentrated at one point (the tower in the middle). The enormous amount of energy. 550°C to 1500°C. coming out of the sun rays.

(i. Solar One) If Molten salt is used as Heat transfer fluid then it is Next generation of solar power tower plant. Solar Two) HELIOSTAT • • • • Heliostat is termed Greek word Helios. The reflected sunlight from the heliostats can generate an enormous amount of heat if all are oriented towards the same target. . water and molten salt. These are also called as sun tracking mirrors. (i.Continued….sun stat .stationary A Heliostat is a device that tracks the movement of the sun. As already mentioned there are two main fluids which are used for the heat transfer.e.e. If water is used as Heat transfer fluid then it is First generation of solar power tower plant.


water was converted to steam in the receiver and used directly for conventional Rankine-cycle steam turbine to generate power.Solar one Solar One was the world’s largest power tower plant. The Solar One thermal storage system works by storing heat in the form of steam generated using solar energy in a tank which is filled with rocks and sand and using oil as the heat-transfer fluid. Disadvantage of solar one technology  Solar One thermal storage system was complex and thermodynamically inefficient. such as the intermittent operation of the turbine due to cloud transience and lack of effective thermal storage. The Solar One thermal storage system extended the power generation capability of the plant into the night and provided heat for generating low-grade steam for keeping parts of the plant warm during off-hours and for morning startup. . In that plant.  Solar One also showed the disadvantages of a water/steam system.


resistant to high temperatures and thermal cycling and absorbs 95% of the incident sunlight is used to coat the external surfaces of the tubes. piping. thermal storage. through which the molten salt flows in a serpentine path. and a steam generator. The design including laser-welding. . This includes the receiver. allows the receiver to rapidly change temperature without being damaged. a tube clip design that facilitates tube expansion and contraction. A black Pyromark paint which is robust.Solar Two The conversion of Solar One to Solar Two required a new (molten-salt) heat transfer system and a new control system. The Solar Two power tower is composed of a series of panels (each made of 32 thin-walled). and non-contact flux measurement devices. stainless steel tubes.


molten salt was selected as best. . oil. including water. and sodium.  Molten salt is an efficient.Advantages of Using Molten Salt A variety of fluids were tested to transport the sun's heat.  it is non-flammable and nontoxic.  Molten salt operating temperatures are compatible with today’s high- pressure and high-temperature steam turbines. low cost medium to store thermal energy. In that. air.

Rankine cycle .

The Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which converts heat into work. natural gas. Common heat sources for power plants using the Rankine cycle are liquid salts. The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop. The working fluid in a Rankine cycle follows a closed loop and is re-used constantly. oil etc. This cycle generates about 80% of all electric power used throughout the world .A Rankine cycle describes a model of the operation of steam heat engines most commonly found in power generation plants. which usually uses water as the working fluid.

The dry saturated vapor expands through a turbine. .Continued…. and some condensation may occur. The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. each changing the state of the working fluid. generating power.. The wet vapor then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant pressure and temperature to become a saturated liquid. as the fluid is a liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy. The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where fluid is heated at constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapor. This decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapor. There are four processes in the Rankine cycle.

emissions will be released from the non-solar portion of the plant. .  If the power tower is hybridized with a conventional fossil plant. even at night or during cloudy weather. Solar power towers are unique among solar electric technologies in their ability to efficiently store solar energy and dispatch electricity to the grid when needed. Environmental Benefits of Solar Power Towers  No hazardous gaseous or liquid emissions are released during operation of the solar power tower plant.Benefits of Solar Power Towers Solar power towers are fueled by sunshine and do not release greenhouse gases.  Salt can be recycled if necessary.

Metal Corrosion in the Molten-Salt Environment  All pipes. valves and vessels for hot salt were constructed from stainless steel because of its corrosion resistance in the molten-salt environment. while the coldsalt system is made from mild carbon steel. .Continued….

Maintenance costs are low as well – only occasional cleaning and periodic battery replacements are needed. Most manufacturers of solar panels provide twenty-year warranties for their equipment. Solar power is also one of the cleanest forms of energy. Solar Power is safer alternative to WIND & HYDRO POWER. in terms of gases. and produces no greenhouse gases or waste products. .Advantages of SPTT Solar energy comes directly from the sun it is not only renewable. guaranteeing long-life operation. but also accessible in any part of the world. but it also causes zero noise pollution – since there are no moving parts in any of the devices which are used to capture the sunlight. Not only solar energy is non-pollutant. since it creates no pollution.

These damaged solar cells are be used to build solar panels. This includes portable devices that utilize solar energy. there are some people who sell damaged solar cells. Once the weather becomes cloudy or night time strikes. Fortunately. Solar panels can also be expensive.Disadvantages The most obvious drawback of solar energy is its sole dependence on the sun. energy collection comes to a halt. It is also true that direct sunlight is needed in order to make the most of the sun’s energy– and to generate the highest amounts of power. . This significantly restricts the placement of solar panels Huge amount of water and land is required. which are much cheaper. because of the materials that are used to create them.

Solar Power can be used as Alternative for Wind & Hydro power. . solar power tower technologies are used. Provides rough enough Electricity for night use & during Cloudy weather. Solar tower technology produces air above 1000°C or synthesis gas for gas turbine operation. In order to supply Electricity for street lights.Applications Of SPTT Solar Powered LED lighting system provides bright light charged by sunlight. Suitable for wherever the grid electricity is unreliable or unavailable. These plants are best suited for utility-scale applications in the 30 to 400 MW range.


. Can be implemented with alternative like WIND and HYDRO power generation. Non pollutant power technology. It will be the power source for developing countries.Conclusions 1. 6. 2. It is very efficiency system can be increased by hybridizing it with the other conventional plants. 3. Very economy excluding initial cost. 5. 4. Molten salt has the best Heat capacity.

M. And K.Meinecke. al. Heidelberg. 5.wikepedia.. Muller Verlag. D. The Case for the Solar Energy Investments.www. 6. W. Germany.S Magal 2.. and B. CA: May 1987. . World Bank Technical Paper Number 279 .Energy Series. SOLERGY .Anderson. Gupta. 1995. and M.C. et. Becker.REFERENCES 1 Solar power engineering By 4. Livermore.: February 1995 .Stoddard. Solar Energy Concentrating Systems: Applications and Technologies.. edited by M.C. Ahmed. Washington D.A Computer Code for Calculating the Annual Energy from Central Receiver Power Plants.Solar energy fundamentals and applications By H P Garg and J Prakash 3. World Bank. Sandia National Laboratories. Bohn.