INPUT DEVICES

An

input device is any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer. Input and output devices make up the hardware interface between a computer. Input devices can be classified into following categories.

KEYBOARDS
A keyboard is a human interface device which

is represented as a layout of buttons. Each button, or key, can be used to either input a linguistic character to a computer, or to call upon a particular function of the computer. Finally, today most users use the QWERTY style keyboards. Below is a graphic illustration of where each of the keys are on a U.S. QWERTY style keyboard.

QWERTY KEYBOARD

POINT-AND-DRAW DEVICES
Mouse,

Track Ball, Joystick, lightpen and Touch Pad comes under Point-and-draw devices, these devices have made computers a much more easily usable. Now lets explain these devices individually:-

MOUSE
A hardware input device that was invented by

Douglas Engelbart in 1963. The mouse allows an individual to control a pointer in a graphical user interface (GUI). Utilizing a mouse a user has the ability to perform various functions such as opening a program or file and does not require the user to memorize commands, like those used in a text-based command line environment such as MS-DOS.

TRACKBALL
A trackball is a pointing device similar to a

roller- ball mouse. It has the roller ball also placed on the top along with the buttons. Trackball is device of choice in CAM/CAN(Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) area. In designing trackball is preferred .

ELECTRONIC PEN
It is pen based on point-and-draw device. A user holds the

pen in his/her hand and points with the directly on the screen to select from the displayed menu items or icons. a user can also draw graphics directly on the screen with it. Another type of electronic pen comes with the special pad .The pen is used like a normal pen and we draw something in pad with movement of electronic pen causes the graphical cursor on screen to move.

TOUCH SCREEN
Touch screen is the most simple,

and easiest to use of all input devices .A touch screen enables a user to choose from available options by simply touching the desired icon or menu items displayed on a computer’s screen with his/her finger . Touch screen are often used in information kiosks .

JOYSTICK
A

peripheral input device that looks similar to a control device you would find on an arcade game at your local arcades. A computer joystick allows an individual to easily navigate an object in a game such as navigating a plane in a flight simulator.

DATA SCANNING DEVICES
Data scanning devices are input device

used for direct entry into computer system from source documents. These devices have following characteristics: 1.They eliminate the need of manual entry. 2.Automatic entry of data with their use improves the data accuracy and less time consumption is there.

DIFFERENT TYPE OF DATA SCANNING
1.Flatbed Scanner : A flat bed scanner is like a

copier machine consisting of a box having a glass plate on it top and a lid that covers the glass plate . A document to be scanned is placed upside down on the glass plate. A light source situated below the glass plate, moves horizontally from one end to another when activated. After scanning one line, the light beam moves up a little and scans the next line. The process is repeated for all the lines

2. HAND HELD SCANNER : A hand held scanner has a set of light emitting diodes encased in a small case that can be held in hand conveniently. To scan a document, the scanner is dragged slowly over it one end to the other end with its light on. The scanner has to be dragged very steadily and carefully, otherwise the conversion of the document into its equivalent bit map will not be correct. Due to this reason, hand held scanners are used only in cases where high accuracy is not needed. They are also used when the volume of documents to be scanned is low. They are much cheaper than flatbed scanners.

3. OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR) DEVICE : OCR is equipped with

character recognition software (called OCR software) that converts the bitmap images of characters to equivalent ASCII codes. That is scanner first creates the bitmap image of the document and then the OCR software translates the array of grid points into ASCII text that the computer can interpret as letters, numbers, and special characters. 4. OPTICAL MARK READER(OMR) : These scanners are capable of recognisation a pre specified type of mark made by pencil or pen. For example , in objective type test applicants mark their choicesof correct answers on a special preprinted test scoring sheet by darkening a small square , circular, or oval shaped box by a pencil. These answer sheets are fed directly to a computer for grading with the use od optical mark reader.

5 .BAR-CODE READER: A bar-code reader

is a device used for reading(decoding) bar-coded data.It may be a hand-held scanner, or embedded in a stationary scanner. It scans a bar-code image and converts it into an alphanumeric value that is then fed to a computer connected to the bar-code reader.

6. MAGNETIC-INK RECOGNITION (MICR) : MICR is

similar to OCR.It is used by banking industry for faster processing of large volume of cheques handled every day by this industry. A bank cheque has bank’s identification code (name , branch , etc),account number ,and cheque number pre-printed (encoded) on it by using charecters from a special character set.A special ink containing particles of iron oxide (that can be magnetized) is used for pre-printing the characters on the cheque.

 7.

DIGITIZER: A digitizer is an input device used for converting (digitizing) pictures, maps and drawings into digital form for storage in computers. For example, the x and y co-ordinates of points in a drawing may be stored in digital form. This enables re-creation of the drawing from the stored information and easy incorporation of changes in the drawing, whenever required. Digitizers are used commonly in the area of Computer Aided Design (CAD) by architects and engineers to design cars, buildings, medical devices, robots, mechanical parts, etc.

8. ELECTRONIC-CARD READER : Electronic

cards and their associated readers offer another means of direct data entry into computer system. Electronic-card having encoded data appropriate for the application for which they are used. An electronic-card reader, normally connected to a computer, is used to read the data encoded on an electronic card and transfer it to the computer for further processing.

SPEECH RECOGNITION DEVICES
Speech recognition devices are input devices that

allow a person to input data to a computer system by speaking to it. However, as a data inputs device, currently speech recognition systems have limited success because correct interpretation by a machine of the large number of words in the vocabulary of a language is difficult.the major difficulties are that people speak with different accounts and intonations, and the fact that the meaning of words can very depending on the context in whcivh they are used.

MICROPHONE
A microphone is a device which allows

you to record voices or sounds and place them onto computers, generally as a wav file. Microphones also can be used with other applications such as a voice dictation program or a voice conference program.

WEBCAM
A camera that is attached to someones

computer. This camera takes pictures every few minutes and updates those pictures to a Web page where everyone can watch. Some Webcams are set up in people's houses and allow you to watch them as they go about their day to day business. Others are set up outside and allow you to watch the scenery of a particular area.

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