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Chapter Overview

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Network Communications The OSI Reference Model

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Signals and Protocols

A data network is a group of computers connected by a network medium. The network medium carries signals between computers. Signals reduce complex information to the simplest possible form. Computers communicate by using a language called a protocol.
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Protocol Services        Packet acknowledgment Segmentation Flow control Error detection Error correction Data compression Data encryption 3 .

A Protocol Stack 4 .

Protocol Interaction 5 .

Local Area Networks     A local area network (LAN) is a collection of computers located in a relatively small area and connected by a common medium. The defining protocols for a LAN are the datalink layer protocols. 6 . LAN topologies include bus. and ring. The pattern in which computers in a LAN are connected is called the topology. star.

Wide Area Networks 7 .

Packet Switching 8 .

Half-Duplex and Full-Duplex Communications 9 .

Backbone Network 10 .

On a peer-to-peer network. and Linux are peer-to-peer operating systems. Novell NetWare is a client/server operating system. UNIX.Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networking     On a client/server network. computers function as either clients or servers. Microsoft Windows. computers can function as both clients and servers. 11 .

The OSI Reference Model 12 .

Data Encapsulation 13 .

PDU Names at Different OSI Layers OSI Layer Application Transport Network Data-link (Any layer) Protocol Data Unit (PDU) Name Message Segment or datagram Datagram Frame Packet 14 .

including    The network medium How the network is installed The type of signaling Cables Network interface adapters (also called network interface cards. or NICs) Hubs 15  Includes the following elements:    .The Physical Layer  Defines the hardware elements of the network.

The Data-Link Layer  Includes the following protocols:      Ethernet Token Ring Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) 16 .

The Data-Link Layer (Cont.)  Includes the following protocol components:    Frame format Media Access Control (MAC) mechanism Physical layer specifications Hardware addressing Error detection and correction Protocol identification  Performs the following functions:    17 .

The Network Layer  Includes the following protocols:     Internet Protocol (IP) Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) AppleTalk Addressing Fragmenting Routing Protocol identification 18  Performs the following functions:     .

The Transport Layer  Includes the following protocols:      Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) IPX NetWare Core Protocol (NCP) Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) Packet acknowledgment Data segmentation Flow control Error detection  Performs the following functions:     19 .

Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Protocols Connection-Oriented (CO) Protocols Require a handshake Connectionless (CL) Protocols Do not require a handshake Have larger headers and more overhead Provide packet acknowledgments. data segmentation. flow control. so they are considered reliable Have smaller headers and less overhead Do not provide additional services Do not acknowledge transmitted packets. so they are considered unreliable 20 . and error detection and correction Acknowledge transmitted packets.

The Session Layer  The two most important functions at this layer are   Dialog control Dialog separation 21 .

The Presentation Layer  The presentation layer uses the following translation process: 1. 2. 22 . The sender translates its abstract syntax to transfer syntax. The sender transmits data to the receiver. 3. The receiver translates transfer syntax to it in abstract syntax.

Version 3 (POP3) Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP) Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Domain Name System (DNS) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) 23 .The Application Layer  Includes the following protocols:         File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Post Office Protocol.

Broadband networks carry multiple signals at once. A LAN uses a common network medium to connect computers in a relatively small area. Most operating systems today use the peer-to-peer model. A backbone network connects segments together. 24 .Lesson 1 Summary: Network Communications        Computers communicate by using languages called protocols. forming an internetwork. while baseband networks carry only one signal. Protocols provide services to other protocols operating above and below them. A WAN uses an external network provider to connect LANs. which allows computers to function as both clients and servers.

flow control. and media access control Provides end-to-end routing and addressing Provides packet acknowledgment. and error detection Provides dialog control and dialog separation Translates syntaxes between different systems Provides an interface to applications running on the computer 25 .Lesson 2 Summary: The OSI Reference Model OSI Model Layer Function Physical Data-link Network Transport Session Presentation Application Defines the hardware elements and structure of the network installation Provides addressing. data encapsulation.