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Mohit Arora(rollno-25) Mudit Govil(rollno-26) Mudit Singh Gautam(rollno-27)

• • • • • • • • • • • • Classification History Definition Why drill horizontally Types Process HD vs VD Applications Advantages Disadvantages Present locations Summary



Horizontal Drilling HORIZONTAL DRILLING 3 .and In-seam directional drilling Source:www. Oilfield Directional Drilling 2.Directional drilling (or slant drilling)  is the practice of drilling non-vertical wells  It can be broken down into three main groups: 1.wikipedia.

• Commercial viability in 1980s particularly in North Dakota and the Austin Chalk of Texas(Giddings Field). drilled near Texon. was completed in 1929. Texas.5 to 7 times rate of vertical wells.and later the Soviet Union also tried the technique. at a depth of 500feet. produced 2. Venango County. • China tried horizontal drilling as early as 1957. • In Alaska’s North Slope fields from nothing in 1986 to 10% of the State’s 1991 production all courtesy to horizontal drilling. • First recorded true horizontal oil well. • Another was drilled in 1944 in the Franklin Heavy Oil Field. Pennsylvania. Source: Energy Information Administration HORIZONTAL DRILLING 4 .HISTORY • First patent for horizontal drilling was issued in 1891 to John Smalley Campbell.

for production . HORIZONTAL DRILLING 5 • • . and remaining within the reservoir until the desired bottom hole location is reached.What Horizontal Drilling is ? • • • Horizontal Drilling process of drilling and completing. then deviating the well bore from the vertical plane around the curve to intersect the reservoir at the entry point with a near horizontal inclination.a well that begins from the earth’s surface to the subsurface location just above the target oil or gas reservoir called the kickoff point.

geographically inaccessible locations.) • Used to gain access to pockets of oil and gas that may be missed or unreachable by traditional vertical drilling.Moore.Why drill horizontally? • Used at Restricted sites(for ex heritage sites."Petroleum Engineer International. "The Horizontal Approach. HORIZONTAL DRILLING 6 . • To gain more exposure of oil reserve(compared to vertical). • More concerned to oil rather than natural gas Source: Steven D. • Enables the harvesting of oil or gas to meet the rising demands without building several oil platforms in the heart of a sensitive ecosystem.

TYPES Radii • Ultrashort radius • Short-radius • Medium-radius • Long radius 1 to 2 ft 20 to 40 ft 140 to 700 ft 1000 to 3000 ft HORIZONTAL DRILLING 7 .

8 Source: Horizontal Drilling and Completions: A Review of Available Technology. Include a lower capital cost." Petroleum Engineer International HORIZONTAL DRILLING . Favourable in small lease blocks.Short-Radius Horizontal Wells • • • • Commonly used when re-entering existing vertical wells. Difficult to measure the diameter in short radius(upto 6 inches).

Source: Horizontal Drilling and Completions: A Review of Available Technology. • Can be drilled on leases as small as 20 acres." Petroleum Engineer International HORIZONTAL DRILLING 9 . • Eg Meridian Oil.Inc.Medium-Radius Horizontal Wells • Allow the use of larger hole diameters. accounted for 43 percent of all mediumradius horizontal wells drilled in the United States.

• These wells are typically used to reach reservoirs which are offshore." Petroleum Engineer International HORIZONTAL DRILLING 10 .Long-Radius Horizontal Well • Very long wells can be drilled. • Several compilation options are also available. Source: Horizontal Drilling and Completions: A Review of Available Technology.

" Journal of Petroleum Technology HORIZONTAL DRILLING 11 . Once the hole is cut.PROCESS • • • • • Oil miners first drill straight down the well using a regular vertical drill pipe with a special bit called a mill. just above the oil bed. unlike one long rigid pipe. Using a special probe inside the pipe. The string of pipes. the driller on the surface can guide the mud motor to drill in the direction and angle desired. The mill is then deflected onto the side of the casing to cut a window into the side of the well. Once the drilling commences. Multiple pumping units are used and the gallons of oil pumped up to the surface are stored in the tanks. • Source: Drilling and Production Aspects of Horizontal Wells in the Austin Chalk. the vertical drill is replaced by an assembly of pipes and a mud motor. the miners set up large tanks and trucks with high pressure pumps to bring the oil to the surface. which does the drilling. is able to flex and bend for the horizontal drilling.

Pennwell Publishing Company HORIZONTAL DRILLING 12 . Horizontal Well Technology .D.Joshi.Horizontal Vs Vertical Source: S.

2 to 1. Department of Energy HORIZONTAL DRILLING .S. the production factor can be enhanced as much as 15 or 20 times. while the cost ratio of horizontal versus vertical wells is only 2 to 1. the U. in the Austin Chalk reservoir of Texas ’Giddings Field. example.200foot HD produce at initial rates 2½to7 times higher than vertical • While the cost factor for a horizontal well may be as much as two or three times that of a vertical well. making it very attractive option HD-HORIZONTAL DRILLING VD-VERTICAL DRILLING 13 Source:U. horizontal completion of 500to2. Department of Energy indicates that using horizontal drilling can lead to an increase in reserves in place by 2% of the original oil in place •The production ratio for horizontal wells versus vertical wells is 3.HOW HD SCORES OVER VD •To give an idea of the effectiveness of horizontal drilling.S. under equal pressure conditions.

APPLICATIONS • under buildings."Oil and Gas Investor. HORIZONTAL DRILLING 14 ."Bakken Shale. and other surface obstructions under active sites where surface operations precluded drilling equipment (Airports and Highways) • to efficiently extract soil vapor • to identify the causes of decreased well performance • to place leak detection sensors beneath solid or hazardous waste landfills • to install gas collection systems at landfills or similar waste dumps • to stabilizing hillsides for mine waste dumps or other unstable granular soil masses • to dewater hillsides where mudslides endanger housing developments • to install groundwater collection galleries in shallow aquifers for private or public water supply • to convey fluids between vertical wells and treatment facilities • exploitation of thin oil-rim reservoirs Source: Sandra Johnson. roads.

• Allowing more wellheads to be grouped together on one surface location can allow fewer rig moves. less surface area disturbance.Advantages • Increasing the exposed section length through the reservoir by drilling through the reservoir at an angle. under a lake. For instance an oilfield under a town. • Drilling into the reservoir where vertical access is difficult or not possible. • Avoidance of problems such as water/gas coning Source:Michigan Oil&GasNews.personalcommunication HORIZONTAL DRILLING 15 . or underneath a difficult to drill formation.

Disadvantages • High cost as compared to a vertical well. A re-entry horizontal well costs about 0. is 65%.S. Source: Oil and Gas Investor HORIZONTAL DRILLING 16 .3 times a vertical well cost.5 times more than a vertical well. costs 1.4 to 1.5 to 2. • Generally only one zone at a time can be produced using a horizontal well. A new horizontal well drilled from the surface. • The overall current commercial success rate of horizontal wells in the U.

Wells Drilled From Land Locations To Underneath The Sea LOCATION East Coast of Sakhalin Field. Russia Most recently Al Shaheen Offshore Qatar. COMPANY ExxonMobil Maersk Oil Qatar AS HORIZONTAL DRILLING 17 .

Summary • Horizontal wells may produce at 3-5 times the rate of vertical wells in the same area (… as much as 20 times higher in special cases). • Horizontal wells typically cost 1. HORIZONTAL DRILLING 18 . • Horizontal wells are often very attractive in formations with extensive vertical fractures.5-3 times as much as vertical wells in the same area.

•The cost factor for a horizontal well may be as much as two or three times that of a vertical well.S. personal communication HORIZONTAL DRILLING 19 . • Horizontal wells has increased our recoverable reserves.Summary •The use of horizontal wells is growing worldwide. the production factor can be enhanced as much as 15 or 20 times. one rig in ten is drilling horizontal wells. making it very attractive SOURCE: Michigan Oil & Gas News. • In the U.