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The Complete Guide To The TOEFL Guide PBT Edition Structure Section 1

Lesson 21: Incomplete Adverb Clauses.
A) Full Adverb Clauses: An Adverb Clause consists of a connecting word, called an adverb clause marker (or subordinate conjunction), and at least a subject and a verb. * The demand for economical cars increases when gasoline becomes more


In this example, the adverb clause marker when joins the adverb clause to the main clause. The adverb clause contains a subject (gasoline) and a verb(becomes). An adverb clause can precede the main clause or follow it. When the adverb clause comes first, it is separated from the main clause by a comma.

* When gasoline becomes more expensive, the demand for economical cars

The following markers are commonly seen in the Structure section: Adverb Clause Marker Use Because Cause Since Cause Although Opposition Even though Opposition While Contrast

Adverb Clause Marker If Unless When While As Since Until Once

Use Condition Condition Time Time Time Time Time Time

Adverb Clause Marker Before After

Use Time Time

B) Clause Markers with –ever:
Words that end with -ever are sometimes used as adverb clause markers. (In some sentences, these words are actually noun-clause markers, but they are seldom used that way in Structure items.) The three -ever words that you are likely to see in the Structure Section are given in the chart below:

Adverb Clause Marker with –ever Wherever Whenever However
C) Reduced Adverb Clauses

Any place that Any time that Any way that

When the subject of the main clause and the subject of the adverb clause are the same person or thing, the adverb clause can be reduced (shortened). Reduced adverb clauses do not contain a main verb or a subject. They consist of a marker and a participle (either a present or a past participle) or a marker and an adjective.

* When astronauts are orbiting the earth, they
don't feel the force of gravity. (full adverb clause) * When orbiting the earth, astronauts don't feel the force of gravity. (reduced clause with present participle) * Although it had been damaged, the machine was still operational. (full adverb clause) * Although damaged, the machine was still operational. (reduced clause with a past participle) * Although he was nervous, he gave a wonderful speech. (full adverb clause) * Although nervous, he gave a wonderful speech. (reduced clause with an adjective)

You will most often see reduced adverb clauses with the markers although, while, if, when, before, after, and until. Reduced adverb clauses are NEVER used after because. D) Prepositional Phrases with the Same Meaning as Adverb Clauses.
Preposition Because of Due to Related Marker Because/since Because/since

Preposition Because of Due to On account of In spite of Despite During

Related Marker Because / since Because / since Because / since Although / even though Although / even though When / while

Directions: Choose the one option -(A), (B), (C), or (D)- that correctly completes the sentences, and then mark the appropriate blank. The first one is done as an example.

1. Small sailboats can easily capsize ______ they are not handled carefully. ______ (A) but ______ (B) which ______ (C) if ______ (D) so

2. ______ they are tropical birds, parrots can live in temperate or even cold climates. ______ (A) Despite ______ (B) Even though ______ (C) Nevertheless ______ (D) But 3. ______ added to a liquid, antifreeze lowers the freezing temperature of that liquid. ______ (A) That ______ (B) As is ______ (C) It is ______ (D) When

4. ______ advertising is so widespread in the United States, it has had an enormous effect on American life. ______ (A) Why ______ (B) The reason ______ (C) On account of ______ (D) Since 5. ______ towards shore, its shape is changed by its collision with the shallow sea bottom. ______ (A) During a wave rolls ______ (B) As a wave rolls ______ (C) A wave rolls ______ (D) A wave's rolling

6. ______ are increasingly linked over long distances by electronic communications, but many of them still prefer face-to-face encounters. ______ (A) Although people ______ (B) Despite people ______ (C) Today people ______ (D) The fact that people 7. ______ together in one place, they form a community. ______ (A) When people who live ______ (B) When people living ______ (C) Whenever people live ______ (D) Whenever living people

8. ______ managed by an independent governor and board of directors, the Bank of Canada is owned by the Canadian government. ______ (A) And yet ______ (B) In spite of it ______ (C) Although ______ (D) It is 9. ______ pieces of rope are of different thickness, the weaver's knot can be used to join them. ______ (A) Two of ______ (B) What two ______ (C) Two such ______ (D) If two

10. _______, the seeds of the Kentucky coffee plant are poisonous. _______ (A) Until they have been cooked _______ (B) Cooking them _______ (C) They have been cooked _______ (D) Cooked until 11. Natural silk is still highly prized _______ similar artificial fabrics. ______ (A) although is available ______ (B) despite there are available ______ (C) in spite of the availability of ______ (D) even though an availability of

12. Cattle ranches are found almost ______ in Utah. ______ (A) wherever ______ (B) everywhere ______ (C) overall ______ (D) somewhere 13. ______ through a prism, a beam of white light breaks into all the colors of the rainbow. ______ (A) When shines ______ (B) It shines ______ (C) It is shone ______ (D) When shone

14. _______ most people think of freezing as a relatively modern method of food preservation, it is actually one of the oldest. ______ (A) Even ______ (B) As though ______ (C) However ______ (D) Even though 15. _______ large bodies of water never freeze solid is that the sheet of ice on the surface protects the water below it from the cold air. ______ (A) Because ______ (B) Why do ______ (C) The reason that ______ (D) For the reason

16. ______ granted by the Patent Office, it becomes the inventor's property and he or she can keep it, sell it, or license it to someone else. ______ (A) Once a patent is ______ (B) When a patent ______ (C) A patent, once ______ (D) A patent, whenever it 17. Owls can hunt in total darkness ______ their remarkably keen sense of smell. ______ (A) since ______ (B) because of ______ (C) the result ______ (D) that

18. ______ most bamboo blooms every year, there are some species that flower only two or three times a century. ______ (A) Whenever ______ (B) That ______ (C) While ______ (D) However