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1) Earth’s internal
heat engine. 2) Earth’s magnetic field. 3) Intro. to Seismology: Tools for seeing into the Earth’s interior. (Chaps. 2-4)

Convection in the Mantle Drives Plate Tectonics! But how? .

thorium.motion of atoms 2) convection .Earth’s internal heat engine  3 reasons for internal heat: 1) from impact during Earth formation 2) radioactive decay of uranium. potassium 3) heat released as inner core forms  Ways to transfer heat: 1) conduction .mass movement of material .

per unit volume.Density: Defined as the mass of a material. the density of water is 1.0 g /cm3. For comparison. . Usually given in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3).

Earth’s internal heat engine Hot materials are less dense and rise. . Cooler materials are denser and sink.


Convecting materials in the Earth’s mantle originate deep. near the core-mantle boundary .

low density material called “plumes”. .Most heat from the deep interior is transferred to the shallow mantle by buoyant masses of hot.

Plumes Create Volcanic Hotspots Hawaiian Islands .

MOV Hot upwelling Material See: MantleDownwelling.Earth’s internal heat engine Cold down-going material See: MantleUpwelling.MOV . .

Earth’s internal heat engine See: MantleConvection.MOV .

.Heat of the upper mantle sets up shallow convection cells that drive plate motions.

There are Three Basic Plate Margin Types: Can You Identify Them? .

MOV .See Video: EarthOceanFloors.

Consequences of Plate Motions: Mountain Building .

Philippines . Mayon.Volcanic Activity Mt.

Consequences of Plate Motions: Earthquakes! .

Convection Also Drives Deep Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems .

Earth’s magnetic field:  The magnetic field is generated by an organized flow of electrons in the molten outer core. .

50 . The magnetic poles and geographic (rotational) pole are offset by 23.Earth’s magnetic field is a dipole with north and south ends of opposing polarity.

MOV & Aurora.Earth-Sun Interactions: (See: Bio_North_America.Mov) .

. but are vertically at the poles.Earth’s magnetic field: Lines of magnetic force are ~parallel to the Earth’s surface at the equator.

like the mineral magnetite.Earth’s magnetic field Naturally-occurring magnetic mineral grains. act as tiny bar magnets and become oriented parallel to the field lines of the Earth’s magnetic field .

Moon: No magnetic field. No molten outer .

MARS: Had a magnetic field early in its history. but not today. How do we know? Remnant magnetism! .

(see MagFieldRev.Magnetic Reversals: Earth’s magnetic field reverses its polarity on an irregular time scale of a few tens of thousand to hundreds of thousands of years.MOV) .

.Magnetic reversals are recorded in igneous rocks by the remnant field orientations frozen into by the magnetic minerals (e.g. magnetite) that crystallize from magma as it cools.

.Magnetic reversals can be dated! This is accomplished by using radiometric dating methods to date igneous rocks that preserve the remnant magnetism.