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WCDMA System Overview

Course Contents
Chapter 1 WCDMA System

Chapter 2 WCDMA Services
Chapter 3 WCDMA System Structure Chapter 4 WCDMA RAN Interface & Procedure Chapter 5 WCDMA Basic Signaling Flow

WCDMA SYSTEM
We have 3 generations:

1stG analog cellular mobile communication, ex: AMPS

(advanced mobile phone system) uses 800MHZ north&
south America &TACS( Total access communication system) uses 900MHZ Britain.

Disadvantages: no high speed services, limited types of
services etc.. To Solve this disadvantages 2ndG was developed.

2ndG ex: DAMPS or IS-54 of USA using 800MHZ & the IS-95 (CDMA mode) European using 800 or

1900MHZ.

Advantages: transmission of voice& low speed data service.  3rdG system can provide multiple kinds of high quality multimedia service and implement global roaming and CDMA has a very large capacity which is 10 times than analog. . 2. the GSM system uses FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) &TDMA modes and each carriers 8 channels 200KHZ B.5G address the medium rate data transmission includes GPRS.2ndG designed as the TDMA support 64kbps.W.

.  3GPP: it adopts the WCDMA technologies to construct a new RAN and a core switching network.3rdG has 2 standardization: 3GPP(3rdG partner project) &3GPP2. 3rdG consist of a family concept: network part &radio interface part.  3GPP2:its adopts the cdma2000 is applied for radio access.

25MHZ narrowband CDMA IS-95 ANSI-41 USA& Korea TD-SCDMA 1.2288Mcps Nx1. 9. 12) .6MHZ GSM WCDMA GSM MAP China Signal bandwidth:5MHZ Inheritance from: GSM Air interface: WCDMA Core network: GSM MAP (Mobile Application Part) Using countries: Europe &Japan NOTE: ( N= 1.The comparison between the three major technical systems: System: Chip rate: WCDMA 3.28Mcps 1. 6.84Mcps cdma2000 Nx1. 3.

Course Contents Chapter 1 WCDMA System Chapter 2 WCDMA Services Chapter 3 WCDMA System Structure Chapter 4 WCDMA RAN Interface & Procedure Chapter 5 WCDMA Basic Signaling Flow .

WCDMA SERVICES   There are many features of 3G services such as: Compatible backward with all the services provided by GSM. The real time service such as voice generally have the QoS requirement.   The concept of multimedia service introduced. The typical service of 3G are CAMEL phase3 intelligent service needs to implement in UMTS &phase 2 needs to implement in providing the prepaid service &support services such as forwarding calls etc…  .

 In 3G improvement of location &application of the system structure. LCS is very attractive. gas station) . types of LCS: Public security service (ex: emergency calls)   Location based charging (ex: some LA’s set as discount area) Enhanced call routing (ex:enables to the nearest  service point.

. to user advertisements in to attract customers) Mobile yellow page (ex: same as ECR)   Network enhancing services (ex: roaming user that can use 3G system from other mobile network). Location based information service (ex: deliver msg.

types of services: Circuit real time multimedia service: The implementation of multimedia service in the circuit domain. . Non real time multimedia message service: This service is called MMS (Multimedia Message Service).    In 3G multimedia service is the first to be developed with a little bandwidth. a natural development of SMS. Packet real time multimedia service: Multimedia service in the packet domain is mainly implemented via the SIP (Session Initiation protocol). voice service is the first to be developed with the use of high compression ratio MP3.

UMTS Traffic Class  Conversational  Streaming  Interactive  Background .

Request relation (variation) response pattern between information entities of the stream .Preserve payload .Preserve payload content content VOD. application videotelephone .UMTS Traffic Class Traffic class Conversational class Streaming class Interactive class Background . network games .Web browsing.background download of emails . Web broadcast .voice.Preserve time .Preserve time characteristics relation (variation) between information entities of the stream Conversational pattern (stringent and low delay ) Example of the .Destination is not expecting the data within a certain time Fundamental .

Course Contents Chapter 1 WCDMA System Chapter 2 WCDMA Services Chapter 3 WCDMA System Structure Chapter 4 WCDMA RAN Interface & Procedure Chapter 5 WCDMA Basic Signaling Flow .

etc lub Node B RNC Node B lur HLR ME SGSN GGSN INTERNET External Networks UE UTRAN CN UMTS Network Elements Structure .UMTS Architecture Uu Node B RNC lu USIM Cu Node B MSC/ VLR GMSC PLMN PSTN ISDN.

WCDMA System Architecture CN Iu UTRAN Uu UE UTRAN: CN: UE: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Core Network User Equipment .

. CN &UE.VLR. including RAN &CN. CN used to process all voice calls and data connections &implement the function of external network switching &routing. UMTS system consist of UTRAN( UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network). CN is divided into CS which covers MSC.   UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) is the 3rdG mobile telecommunication system by using the WCDMA air interface technology. RAN used to process all radio related functions. &PS which provides packet data services for subscriber including the SGSN &GGSN.IWF &GMSC.

UTRAN System Architecture Core Network Iu RNS RNC Iur RNS RNC Iub Node B Iub Node B Iu Iub Node B Iub Node B .

But have MSC server. UE is divided into ME &USIM (UMTS subscriber module). R99 network structure has considered the 2G/3G compatibility so as to support the smooth transition of GSM/GPRS/3G. .VLR. CS-MGW( Circuit switched media gateway) &T-SGW( Transport signaling Gateway). its main function includes MSC.HLR. GMSC server. R4 the function entities (SGSN &GGSN) of the PS domain remain unchanged.GGSN.EIR.    UTRAN is divided into RNC (radio network controller) it implements connection establishment modulation/demodulation and Node B is the base station of WCDMA system.SGSN.GMSC.AUC.

RAN Interfaces GMSC Gs GGSN VMSC/VLR A BSS Abis BTS BTS Um SGSN Iu-CS Gb Iu-PS RNC Iub NODE B Uu NODE B .

Common Protocol Model of UTRAN Interfaces The principle of interface protocol architecture is the logical mutual-independence between layers and planes. Protocol layers of a specified protocol version. Radio Network Layer Control Plane Application Protocol User Plane Data Stream(s) Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane Transport Network User Plane ALCAP(s) Signalling Bearer(s) Signalling Bearer(s) Data Bearer(s) Physical Layer . or even all layers in a plane can be modified if required in the future.

Basic Notions    UE Working Mode and State Serving RNC、Drift RNC and Control RNC Source RNC and Target RNC .

cell re-selection DEAD .”Camp on” cell .Scanning networks (PLMN) .Radio bearers Transmission Services IDLE .UE states .Reduce action,DTX,and save power RRC connection URA_PCH CELL_PCH CELL_DCH CELL_FACH .Monitor paging channel .upper layer Signaling trigger (CN) .Dedicated Channel .

SRNC/DRNC CN Iu SRNC Iur DRNC  In WCDMA system, notion of SRNC/DRNC is introduced because the existence of Iur Interface In brief. but can has 0 or multiple DRNCs . the RNC directly connected to CN and controlling all the UE’s resources is called SRNC(serving RNC) of this UE The RNC with no connection to CN but only providing   resources for UE is called DRNC(Drift RNC) of this UE  A UE in connection state has at least and only one SRNC.

Source RNC is the SRNC before SRNC Relocation and Target RNC is the SRNC after SRNC Relocation   Source RNC and Target RNC refer to different RNCs during a SRNC Relocation process .Source RNC/Target RNC CN Iu Source RNC Iur Target RNC RNC CN Iu Serving RNC  SRNC Relocation is the process of switching the SRNC of a specific UE.

UTRAN Interface Protocols and Functions Iu Interface Iur Interface Iub Interface Uu Interface     .

Iu Interface System Structure UTRAN Node B RNC Node B Core Network (CN) CS Domain Iu-CS PS Domain Iu-PS RNC Node B Node B Iu Interface .

1 Transport Network User Plane SCCP MTP3b SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 Q.1 MTP3b SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 AAL2 ATM Physical Layer .Iu-CS Interface Protocol Stack Structure Radio Network Layer Control Plane RANAP User Plane Iu UP Protocol Layer Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane Q.2630.2150.

Iu-PS Interface Protocol Stack Structure Radio Network Layer Control Plane RANAP User Plane Iu UP Protocol Layer Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane SCCP M3UA MTP3-B SCTP SSCF-NNI SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 IP Transport Network Control Plane Transport Network User Plane GTP-U UDP IP AAL5 ATM Physical Layer ATM Physical Layer .

Modification and Release of RAB Iu data transmission – normal data transmission – abnormal data transmission – Transparent transmission of UE-CN connection information   .Iu Interface Functions(1)  Mobility Management – Location Area Report – SRNS Relocation – Hard handover between RNCs and inter-system handover Radio Access Bearer(RAB)Management – Establishment.

Iu Interface Functions(2) – Paging – Iu Release – Security Mode Control – Overload Control – Common UE ID(IMSI)Management – Iu Signaling Trace Management – Iu Interface Abnormality Management .

UTRAN Interfaces Protocols and Functions     Iu Interface Iur Interface Iub Interface Uu Interface .

Iur Interface Protocol Stack Structure Radio Network Layer Control Plane RNSAP User Plane Iur Data Stream(s) Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane ALCAP(Q.2630.1) MTP3-B SSCF-NNI SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 M3UA SCTP IP AAL2 ATM Physical Layer .2150.1) Transport Network User Plane SCCP MTP3-B SSCF-NNI SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 M3UA SCTP IP STC (Q.

Modify or Release Dedicated Channels in DRNC during handover – Transmission of DCH TB(Transmission Block) on Iur – Management of RL(Radio Link) in DRNS by Dedicated Measurement Procedure and Filter Control – RL Management,Compressed Mode Management .Iur Interface Functions(1)  Support Basic Mobility Functions between RNCs – Support SRNC relocation – Cell Update and URA Update between RNCs – Paging between RNCs – Protocol Error Report  Channel Functions – Establish.

UTRAN Interfaces Protocols and Functions     Iu Interface Iur Interface Iub Interface Uu Interface .

2 Transport Layer SSCF-UNI SSCOP AAL Type 5 SSCF-UNI SSCOP AAL Type 5 ATM Physical Layer AAL Type 2 .Iub Interface Protocol Stack Radio Network Control Plane Transport Network Control Plane User Plane PCH FP RACH FP FACH FP DSCH FP USCH FP Radio Network Layer Node B Application Part (NBAP) CPCH FP DCH FP ALCAP Q.2630.1 Q.2150.

Iub Interface Functions(1)  Common Functions – Common Transport Channel Management – Iub Common Channel Data Transmission – Logical O&M of Node B(maintenance functions such as cell configuration Management,Fault Management, Block Management.) – System Information Management – Common Measurement – Resource Verification – Abnormality Management – Timing and Synchronization Management . etc.

Iub Interface Functions(2) Dedicated Functions  – Dedicated Transport Channel Management – Radio Link(RL) Monitoring – Dedicated Measurement Management – Timing and Synchronization Management – Up-link outer loop Power Control – Iub Dedicated Data transmission – Balance on down-link power drifting – Compressed Mode Control .

UTRAN Interfaces Protocols and Functions    Iu Interface Iur Interface Iub Interface  Uu Interface .

Uu Interface Protocol Stack Structure C-plane signalling GC Nt DC U-plane information Duplication avoidance GC Nt DC L3 control RRC PDCP UuS boundary PDCP L2/PDCP BMC control control control control L2/BMC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC L2/RLC Logical Channels MAC L2/MAC Transport Channels PHY L1 .

Uu Interface  Channel Structure  Physical Channel  Transport Channel  Logical Channel .

Physical Channel Structure  Dedicated Physical Channel – DPDCH: Dedicated Physical Data Channel – DPCCH: Dedicated Physical Control Channel  Common Physical Channel – Uplink: • PRACH: Physical Random Access Channel • PCPCH: Physical Common Packet Channel – Downlink: • • • • • CCPCH: Common Control Physical Channel SCH: Synchronization Packet Channel PDSCH: Physical Downlink Shared Channel PICH: Paging Indicator Channel CPICH: Common Pilot Channel .

Transport Channel Structure  Dedicated Transport Channel – DCH  Common Transport Channel – BCH: Broadcast Channel(Downlink) – PCH: Paging Channel(Downlink) – FACH: Forward Access Channel(Downlink) – RACH: Random Access Channel(Uplink) – CPCH: Common Packet Channel(Uplink. Optional) . Optional) – DSCH: Downlink Shared Channel(Downlink.

Transport/Physical Channel Mapping Transport Channels Physical Channels DCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) RACH CPCH Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH) Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) BCH FACH PCH Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) Synchronisation Channel (SCH) DSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel (AP-AICH) Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) CPCH Status Indicator Channel (CSICH) Collision-Detection/Channel-Assignment Indicator Channel (CD/CA-ICH) .

Logical Channel Structure  Control Channels – BCCH: Broadcast Control Channel – PCCH: Paging Control Channel(Downlink) – DCCH: Dedicated Control Channel(bi-directional)  Traffic Channels – CCCH: Common Control Channel(bi-directional) – DTCH: Dedicated Traffic Channel(bi-directional) – CTCH: Common Traffic Channel(Downlink) .

Logical/Transport Channel Mapping BCCH.PCCHSAP SAP DCCHSAP CCCH.CTCHSAP SAP SAP (TDD only) DTCHSAP MAC SAPs BCH PCH CPCH FAUSCH RACH (FDD only) FACH USCH DSCH DCH Channels (TDD only) Transport .SHCCH.

Uu Interface Protocol  L3: Network Layer – RRC: Radio Resource Control L2: Data Link Layer – PDCP: Packet Data Convergence Protocol – RLC: Radio Link Control Protocol – MAC: Medium Access Control Protocol – BMC: Broadcast/Multicast Control   L1: Physical Layer .

Uu Interface L1 Functions(1)  Multiplexing of transport channels and de-multiplexing of encoded composite channels Mapping of encoded composite transport channels on physical channels Macro-diversity distribution/combining and soft handover execution Error detection on transport channels and indication to higher layers FEC encoding/decoding and interleaving/de-interleaving of transport channels Rate matching of coded transport channels to physical channels      .

Uu Interface L1 Functions(2)  closed-loop power control   open-loop power control Modulation and spreading/demodulation and de-spreading of physical channels  Synchronization between frequency and time (chip. frame) Radio characters measurements (FER. Interference  power) and indication to higher layers   Compressed mode support Diversity of Transmission/Receiving . SIR. slot. bit.

Course Contents Chapter 1 WCDMA System Chapter 2 WCDMA Services Chapter 3 WCDMA System Structure Chapter 4 WCDMA RAN Interface & Procedure Chapter 5 WCDMA Basic Signaling Flow .

After being switched on the UE operates in Idle mode and is identified as non-access stratum such as IMSI. The UE may operates in one or two modes: Idle mode & Connected mode.  .  Non-access stratum: refer to the procedure in which only UE &CN participate. UTRAN doesn’t save the information of the UE in this mode. TMSI or P-TMSI.BASIC SIGNALING PROCEDURES We have two stratum signaling procedures:  Access stratum: such as RRC( radio resource control) &RANAP( radio access network application protocol) layers refer to the procedures of which radio access stratum equipment such as RNC &NodeB. After establishing an RRC connection the UE shifts from the idle mode to the connected mode.

UMTS Architecture Uu Node B RNC lu USIM Cu Node B MSC/ VLR GMSC PLMN PSTN ISDN.etc lub Node B RNC Node B lur HLR ME SGSN GGSN INTERNET External Networks UE UTRAN CN UMTS Network Elements Structure .

When the non access layer of the UE requests to establish a signaling connection in the idle mode the UE will initiate the RRC connection.  Signaling setup procedure: after the RRC connection between the UE and the UTRAN is successfully setup the UE sets up signaling connection with the CN via the RNC .  Radio resource management procedures: RRC connection setup procedure: each UE has one RRC connection only. .

RAB establishment: Radio Access Bearer refers to
the user plane bearer that is used to transfer voice, data &multimedia services between UE &CN.

Call release procedure: is a procedure that the RRC
connection release procedure it falls into two types: UE initiated release &CN initiated release. The difference between the two release types lies in who sends the call release request message of the upper layer first, though the final resource release is initiated by the CN.

Hand over procedure: when the cell or the mode
(TDD/FDD) used by the UE changes.

SRNS (serving radio network subsystem): the RNC

relocation refers to that the SRNC of the UE changes from one RNC to another RNC, it is divided into two cases based on UE location at the time of relocation: static relocation (UE not involved) & associated relocation (UE involved).

Call overall Procedures
Network side Start 1、Initialize equipment 2、Process system broadcast Step 1 Handset Power on 1、cell reselection 2、Location registration 3、Waiting for call Step 2 Paging UE Step 3 RRC connection

Establish

Step 6 Soft/hard handover

Step 6 RAB/RB modification

Step 6 Physical channel reconfiguration Step 6 URA update

Step 6 Transport channel reconfiguration Step 6 Cell update

Step 5 RAB set up 1、synchronous set up 2、asynchronous set up

Step 4 NAS signaling connection establish

Step 6 Handover with GSM

Step 7 RRC connection release

Step 8 Waiting for call again 1、cell selection 2、wait for call

AAL2 Downlink Synchronisation Uplink Synchronisation DCH-FP DCH-FP CCCH : RRC Connection Setup RRC RRC RLC RRC DCCH : RRC Connection Setup Complete DCCH : RRC Connection Setup Complete ack DCCH : Inital Direct Transfer RRC RRC RLC RRC .AAL2 Q.AAL2 DCH-FP DCH-FP Start TX Establish Request Establish Confirm Q.AAL2 Q.Originating Call Procedure (1) UE Node B Serving RNS CCCH : RRC Connection Request Radio Link Setup Request NBAP Serving RNC RRC CN RRC NBAP Start RX NBAP Radio Link Setup Response NBAP Q.

Originating Call Procedure (2) UE Node B Serving RNS Serving RNC CN RRC DCCH : Inital Direct Transfer RRC Initial UE Message RANAP RANAP (CM Service Request) Direct Transfer (CM Service Accept) RANAP RANAP RRC RRC RRC DCCH : Downlink Direct Transfer DCCH : Uplink Direct Transfer RRC RRC RANAP RANAP Direct Transfer (Setup) Direct Transfer (Call Proceeding) RANAP RANAP RRC RRC DCCH : Downlink Direct Transfer : DCCH Uplink Direct Transfer RRC RRC .

AAL2 Q.Originating Call Procedure (3) UE Node B Serving RNS DCCH : Downlink Direct Transfer DCCH : Uplink Direct Transfer RRC RAB Assignment Request RANAP Q.AAL2 NBAP NBAP Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready NBAP NBAP ( Establishment ) Establish Request Establish Confirm Q.AAL2 Q.AAL2 RANAP Serving RNC RRC CN RRC RRC .

AAL2 Q.AAL2 NBAP Downlink Synchronisation Uplink Synchronisation Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit NBAP NBAP NBAP RRC NBAP RRC DCCH : Radio Bearer Setup Apply new transport format set RRC RLC DCCH : Radio Bearer Setup Complete DCCH : Radio Bearer Setup Complete ack RRC RLC RANAP RAB Assignment Response ( Establishment ) RANAP .AAL2 Establish Request Establish Confirm Q.AAL2 NBAP Q.Originating Call Procedure (4) UE Node B Serving RNS Serving RNC CN Q.

Originating Call Procedure (5) UE Node B Serving RNS Serving RNC CN RANAP RRC DCCH : Downlink Direct Transfer Direct Transfer (Alerting) Direct Transfer (Connect) RANAP RRC RANAP RANAP RRC RRC DCCH : Downlink Direct Transfer DCCH : Uplink Direct Transfer RRC RRC RANAP Direct Transfer (Connect Acknowledge) RANAP RRC DCCH : Uplink Direct Transfer RRC RANAP RANAP Direct Transfer (Disconnect) Direct Transfer (Release) RANAP RANAP RRC RRC DCCH : Downlink Direct Transfer DCCH : Uplink Direct Transfer RRC RRC RANAP Direct Transfer (Rlease Complete) RANAP .

AAL2 NBAP Q.AAL2 Q.AAL2 DCCH : RRC Connection Release DCCH : RRC Connection ReleaseComplete NBAP Radio Link Deletion NBAP Radio Link Deletion Complete Release Request Release Complete NBAP Q.AAL2 Q.AAL2 Q.Originating Call Procedure (6) UE Node B Serving RNS Serving RNC CN RANAP Q.AAL2 RANAP Iu Release Command Release Request Release Complete RANAP Q.AAL2 Q.AAL2 Iu Release Complete RANAP .

Soft Handover Illustration (Intra RNC) CN SRNC CN SRNC CN SRNC NodeB NodeB NodeB NodeB NodeB NodeB Before Soft Handover During Soft Handover After Soft Handover .

DCCH: Active Set Update Command 7. Radio Link Setup Request NBAP Start RX description NBAP 2. Downlink Synchronization 5. Radio Link Setup Response NBAP 3 ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer Setup DCH-FP DCH-FP 4. RRC RRC DCCH : Active Set Update Complete .Uplink Synchronization DCH-FP DCH-FP Start RX description RRC RRC 6.Soft Handover Flow (Intra RNC add branch) UE Node B(new) SRNC Decision to setup new RL NBAP 1.

Radio Link Deletion Response NBAP 5 ALCAP Iub Transport Bearer release . RRC RRC RRC RRC DCCH : Active Set Update Complete NBAP 3.DCCH: Active Set Update Command 2.Soft Handover Flow (Intra-RNC delete branch) UE Node B(old) SRNC Decision to delete a RL 1. Radio Link Deletion Request NBAP Stop RX and Tx NBAP 4.

Soft Handover Illustration (Inter-RNC) CN SRNC CN SRNC RNC RNC NodeB NodeB NodeB NodeB NodeB NodeB Before Soft Handover After Soft Handover Radio Link(RL) is added and deleted simultaneously .

ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer Release . Radio Link Setup Request 3. Radio Link Setup Response NBAP 4. Radio Link Deletion Request Stop RX and TX NBAP 11. DCCH: Active Set Update Command RRC RRC [Radio Link Addition & Deletion] 9. Uplink Synchronization DCH-FP DCH-FP Start TX description 8.Soft Handover Flow (Inter-RNC) UE Node B Drift RNS Node B Serving RNS Drift RNC Serving RNC Decision to setup new RL and release old RL 1. ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer Setup NBAP RNSAP RNSAP ALCAP Iur Bearer Setup DCH-FP 6. Downlink Synchronization DCH-FP 7. DCCH : Active Set Update Complete NBAP RRC RRC NBAP 10. Radio Link Setup Request RNSAP NBAP Start RX description NBAP 2. Radio Link Setup Response RNSAP 5. Radio Link Release Response NBAP 12.

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