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# KAJIAN RINTIS (PILOT STUDY)

## Kebolehpercayaan dan Kesahan Reliability and Validity

Kebolehpercayan (Reliability)
Prosedur ukuran (Measurement Procedure) konsistensi dalam ukuran (Consistency of measurement)

KESAHAN (VALIDITY)
Mengukur apa patut ukur.(The extent to which measures indicate what they are intended to measure)

## Kebolehpercayaan luaran (Reliability)

Uji-ulang uji (test-retest) pearson correlations Ujian yang sama diberi masa berlainan Ujian fizikal, larian 30m, ujian serve dlm tenis Soalan objektif Teknik split untuk soal-selidik

## 1. Kebolehpercayaan dalaman (Inter-item Reliability)

Hubungan antara item contoh soal selidik atau ujian objektif Kebolehpercayaan akan menjadi lebih kuat sekiranya ada hubungan yang kuat antara item-item
Cronbachs alpha biasa digunakan untuk mengukur kebolehpercyaan dalaman contoh soal selidik (questionnaire)

## Kebolehpercayaan antara pemerhati (Interobserver Reliability)

1. Interobserver Agreement (I.O.A) 2. Memerhati secara bebas 3. Perlukan sekurang-kurang dua orang 4. Perlu mencatat skor untuk mengira peratus persetujuan

Example (contoh)
Observation active behavior, Sports Science Masters student of UPSI Observation for one hour, game play 7 vs. 7 soccer One observer recorded 20 incidents missed the ball, the other one recorded 25 incidents missed the ball 18 observation were common across two Compute inter observer reliability Total number of agreed observations Total number of agreed and disagreed between 2 observer __18___ 18 + ( 2+7) R =.67 atau 67% persetujuan bersama

## And Now Onto Validity (Kesahan)..

Types of Validity
1. Content Validity
Face Validity

2. Empirical Validity
Concurrent Validity Predictive Validity

3. Construct Validity

Face Validity
confidence gained from careful inspection of a concept to see if its appropriate on its face; Good judgment by expert (pakar)

Content validity
Establishes that the measure covers the full range of the concepts meaning, i.e., covers all dimensions of a concept Depends on good judgment by expert (pakar)

EMPIRICAL Validity
Establishes that the results from one measure match those obtained with a more direct or already validated measure of the same phenomenon (the criterion) Includes
Concurrent Predictive

Concurrent Validity
Validity exists when a measure yields scores that are closely related to scores on a criterion measured at the same time Does the new instrument correlate highly with an old measure of the same concept that we assume (judge) to be valid? (use of good judgment)

Predictive Validity
Exits when a measure is validated by predicting scores on a criterion measured in the future Are future events which we judge to be a result of the concept were measuring anticipated *predicted+ by the scores were attempting to validate Use of good judgment

Construct validity
Eestablished by showing that a measure is (1) related to a variety of other measures as specified in a theory, used when no clear criterion exists for validation purposes (2) that can be operationalization (boleh dioperasikan)

Conclusion
Do report how do you carry out your pilot study What improvement to be done for the actual study from the pilot study experience