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Chapter Outline
Terminology for Mechanical Propertie The Ten ile Te t: Stre !Strain "iagram Propertie O#taine$ from a Ten ile Te t Tr%e Stre an$ Tr%e Strain The &en$ Te t for &rittle Material Har$ne of Material

'%e tion to Thin( A#o%t

) Stre an$ train: *hat are they an$ +hy are they % e$ in tea$ of loa$ an$ $eformation, ) Ela tic #eha-ior: *hen loa$ are mall. ho+ m%ch $eformation occ%r , *hat material $eform lea t, ) Pla tic #eha-ior: At +hat point $o $i location ca% e permanent $eformation, *hat material are mo t re i tant to permanent $eformation, ) To%ghne an$ $%ctility: *hat are they an$ ho+ $o +e mea %re them, ) Ceramic Material : *hat pecial pro-i ion /te t are ma$e for ceramic material ,


!Strain Te t


Ten ile Te t

Important Mechanical Propertie from a Ten ile Te t

) Young's Modulus: Thi i the lope of the linear portion of the tre ! train c%r-e. it i % %ally pecific to each material0 a con tant. (no+n -al%e1 ) Yield Strength: Thi i the -al%e of tre at the yiel$ point. calc%late$ #y plotting yo%ng2 mo$%l% at a pecifie$ percent of off et 3% %ally off et 4 516781 ) Ultimate Tensile Strength: Thi i the highe t -al%e of tre on the tre ! train c%r-e1 ) Percent Elongation: Thi i the change in ga%ge length $i-i$e$ #y the original ga%ge length1

Loa$ ! The force applie$ to a material $%ring te ting1 Strain gage or E9ten ometer ! A $e-ice % e$ for mea %ring change in length 3 train81 Engineering tre ! The applie$ loa$. or force. $i-i$e$ #y the original cro ! ectional area of the material1 Engineering train ! The amo%nt that a material $eform per %nit length in a ten ile te t1

Ela tic "eformation

1. Initial 2. Small load
bonds stretch return to initial

3. Unload

Ela tic mean re-er i#le1

Linearelastic Non-Linearelastic

Pla tic "eformation 3Metal 8

:1 Initial 61 Small loa$ bonds stretch & planes shear elastic + plastic ;1 <nloa$ planes still sheared plastic

Pla tic mean permanent1
linear elastic linear elastic


Typical tre ! train #eha-ior for a metal ho+ing ela tic an$ pla tic $eformation . the proportional limit P an$ the yiel$ trength =y. a $etermine$ % ing the 51556 train off et metho$ 3+here there
i noticea#le pla tic $eformation81

P i the gra$%al ela tic to pla tic tran ition1


Pla tic "eformation 3permanent8

) >rom an atomic per pecti-e. pla tic $eformation corre pon$ to the #rea(ing of #on$ +ith original atom neigh#or an$ then reforming #on$ +ith ne+ neigh#or 1 ) After remo-al of the tre . the large n%m#er of atom that ha-e relocate$. $o not ret%rn to original po ition1 ) ?iel$ trength i a mea %re of re i tance to pla tic $eformation1


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) Locali@e$ $eformation of a $%ctile material $%ring a ten ile te t pro$%ce a nec(e$ region1 ) The image ho+ nec(e$ region in a fract%re$ ample

Permanent "eformation
) Permanent $eformation for metal i accompli he$ #y mean of a proce calle$ lip. +hich in-ol-e the motion of $i location 1 ) Mo t tr%ct%re are $e igne$ to en %re that only ela tic $eformation re %lt +hen tre i applie$1 ) A tr%ct%re that ha pla tically $eforme$. or e9perience$ a permanent change in hape. may not #e capa#le of f%nctioning a 14 inten$e$1

?iel$ Strength. y

tensile stress,

$lastic+%lastic at lar er stress

tensile stress,

$lastic initiall!

permanent &plastic' a(ter load is remo)ed

en ineerin strain,
plastic strain

en ineerin strain,

p " #.##2


'l&i a&e &ensile s&ren"&h

!Strain "iagram
3 neckin" Fracture 5

Slope= E


-ield s&ren"&h

Strain Hardening

Stress (F/ )

2 Plastic Region Elastic Region

E= "% ! $ !#

" =E!

" E= !

(las&ic re"ion slo)e *+o'n",s (elas&ic) -ield s&ren"&h .las&ic re"ion 'l&i a&e &ensile s&ren"&h s&rain hardenin" frac&'re

Strain ( ) ( L/Lo)


!Strain "iagram (cont)

) Elastic &egion (Point 1 2) - The material ill return to its original shape a!ter the material is unloaded( li"e a ru##er #and)$ - The stress is linearl% proportional to the strain in this region$

" =E!


& Stress(psi) E & Elastic modulus (Youngs Modulus) (psi) ! & Strain (in'in)

" E= !

1 Point 2 & (ield Strength & a point

here permanent de!ormation occurs$ ( )! it is passed* the material ill no longer return to its original length$)


!Strain "iagram (cont)

2 Strain 'ardening - )! the material is loaded again !rom Point +* the cur,e ill !ollo #ac" to Point - ith the same Elastic .odulus (slope)$ - The material no has a higher %ield strength o! Point +$ - Raising the %ield strength #% permanentl% straining the material is called Strain Hardening$


!Strain "iagram (cont)

) Tensile Strength (Point -) - The largest ,alue o! stress on the diagram is called Tensile Strength(TS) or /ltimate Tensile Strength (UTS) - )t is the ma0imum stress hich the material can support ithout #rea"ing$ ) Fracture (Point 1) - )! the material is stretched #e%ond Point -* the stress decreases as nec"ing and non-uni!orm de!ormation occur$ - Fracture ill !inall% occur at Point 1$

The stress-strain curve for an aluminum alloy.

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) Stre ! train #eha-ior fo%n$ for ome teel +ith yiel$ point phenomenon1



?iel$ Strength: Compari on

-etals+ .llo!s 2### *raphite+ ,eramics+ Semicond %ol!mers ,omposites+ (ibers
Steel &515#' 8t

/ield stren th, ! &-%a'

1# ## 4## 2## 6## 5## 3## 2##

1ard to measure,

.l &2#21' a Steel &1#2#' hr 7i &pure' a 7a &pure' ,u &416##' hr

1ard to measure , since in tension, (racture usuall! occurs be(ore !ield.

in ceramic matri; and epo;! matri; composites, since in tension, (racture usuall! occurs be(ore !ield.

7i &6.l-2.6Sn' a 9 &pure' ,u &416##' c: -o &pure' Steel &515#' a Steel &1#2#' cd

Room T -al%e
a " annealed hr " hot rolled a " a ed cd " cold dra:n c: " cold :or<ed 8t " 8uenched & tempered

1## 4# 2# 6# 5# 3# 2#
7in &pure' .l &2#21' a


%, N!lon 2,2 %$7 %0, humid %% 13%$




Ten ile Strength. TS

) After yiel$ing. the tre nece ary to contin%e pla tic $eformation in metal increa e to a ma9im%m point 3M8 an$ then $ecrea e to the e-ent%al fract%re point 3>81 ) All $eformation %p to the ma9im%m tre i %niform thro%gho%t the ten ile ample1 ) Ho+e-er. at ma9 tre . a mall con triction or nec( #egin to form1 ) S%# eA%ent $eformation +ill #e confine$ to thi nec( area1 ) >ract%re trength corre pon$ to the tre at fract%re1
Region #et+een M an$ >: ) Metal : occ%r +hen noticea#le nec(ing tart 1 ) Ceramic : occ%r +hen crac( propagation tart 1 ) Polymer : occ%r +hen polymer #ac(#one are aligne$ an$ a#o%t to #rea(1 24

In an %n$eforme$ thermopla tic polymer ten ile ample. 3a8the polymer chain are ran$omly oriente$1 3#8*hen a tre i applie$. a nec( $e-elop a chain #ecome aligne$ locally1 The nec( contin%e to gro+ %ntil the chain in the entire gage length ha-e aligne$1 3c8The trength of the polymer i increa e$


Ten ile Strength: Compari on

-etals+ .llo!s 6### 3### 2### 1# ## *raphite+ ,eramics+ Semicond %ol!mers ,omposites+ (ibers
, (ibers .ramid (ib $- lass (ib Steel &515#' 8t 3iamond 9 &pure' a 7i &6.l-2.6Sn'a Steel &515#' Si nitride ,u &416##' c: ,u &416##' hr .l o;ide Steel &1#2#' a .l &2#21' a 7i &pure' 7a &pure' .l &2#21' a Si cr!stal

7ensile stren th, 7S &-%a'

.F@$&?? (iber' *F@$&?? (iber' ,F@$&?? (iber'

3## 2## 1## 5# 3# 2# 1#

Room T -al%e
N!lon 2,2 %, %$7 %0, %% 13%$ L3%$ :ood&?? (iber' *F@$& (iber' ,F@$& (iber' .F@$& (iber'
&a e$ on $ata in Ta#le &B. Callister 6e1

*lass-soda ,oncrete *raphite

:ood &


a 4 anneale$ hr 4 hot rolle$ ag 4 age$ c$ 4 col$ $ra+n c+ 4 col$ +or(e$ At 4 A%enche$ C tempere$ A>RE. D>RE. C C>RE 4 arami$. gla . C car#on fi#er!reinforce$ epo9y compo ite . +ith E5 -ol7 fi#er . 26

Engineering Stre
A 7ensile stress, B


A Shear stress, B


F Fs

.rea, .

.rea, .

Ft = .o
ori inal area be(ore loadin


Fs Fs = .o F Ft


ha %nit : N/m6 or l#/in6


http://((()(ile%)com/college/callister/*+,*#$-.,.//mse/inde0)htm http://((()(ile%)com/college/callister/*+,*#$-.,.//mse/strstr)htm


E9ample : Ten ile Te ting of Al%min%m Alloy

Convert the change in length data in the table to engineering stress and strain and plot a stress-strain curve.

Example 1 SOLUT O!

"%ctility. 7EL
"%ctility i a mea %re of the pla tic $eformation that ha #een % taine$ at fract%re:
$n ineerin tensile stress,
A material that %ffer -ery little pla tic $eformation i #rittle1

4 EL =

l f lo lo


smaller C$L &brittle i( C$L=6C' lar er C$L &ductile i( C$L>6C' $n ineerin tensile strain,





A Another $%ctility mea %re:

4 AR =

Ao A f Ao


) "%ctility may #e e9pre e$ a either percent elongation 37 pla tic train at fract%re8 or percent re$%ction in area1 ) 7AR G 7EL i po i#le if internal -oi$ form in nec(1 31

To%ghne i the a#ility to a# or# energy %p to fract%re 3energy

per %nit -ol%me of material81

Lo+er to%ghne : ceramic Higher to%ghne : metal

A Hto%ghI material ha trength an$ $%ctility1 Appro9imate$ #y the area %n$er the tre ! train c%r-e1


A $ner ! to brea< a unit )olume o( material A .ppro;imate b! the area under the stress-strain cur)e.
$n ineerin tensile stress,
smaller tou hness &ceramics' lar er tou hness &metals, %-,s' smaller tou hnessunrein(orced pol!mers

$n ineerin tensile strain,


Linear Ela tic Propertie

A 1oo<eDs La:B A %oissonDs ratioB
metalsB E #.33 ceramicsB E#.26 pol!mersB E#.5#

= 9/y
simple tension test

Mo$%l% of Ela ticity. E: 3?o%ng2 mo$%l% 8

<nit : E: JDPaK or Jp iK B $imen ionle


Engineering Strain

Strain i $imen ionle


A9ial 3@8 elongation 3po iti-e train8 an$ lateral 39 an$ y8 contraction 3negati-e train 8 in re pon e to an impo e$ ten ile tre 1


True Stress and True Strain

True stress The load divided by the actual crosssectional area o" the specimen at that load. True strain The strain calculated using actual and not original dimensions# given by t ln$l/l0%.

)The relation #et+een the tr%e tre ! tr%e train $iagram an$ engineering tre !engineering train $iagram1 )The c%r-e are i$entical to the yiel$ point1


!Strain Re %lt for Steel Sample


Example &' (oung)s *odulus - +luminum +lloy

,rom the data in Example 1# calculate the modulus o" elasticity o" the aluminum alloy.

E9ample 6: ?o%ngM Mo$%l% ! Al%min%m Alloy ! contin%e$ ) < e the mo$%l% to $etermine the length after $eformation of a #ar of initial length of L5 in1 ) A %me that a le-el of tre of ;5.555 p i i applie$1

?o%ngM Mo$%li: Compari on

-etals .llo!s
12## 1### F## 2## 5##

*raphite ,eramics %ol!mers Semicond


,omposites +(ibers


2## 1## F# 2# 5#

7un sten -ol!bdenum Steel, Ni 7antalum %latinum ,u allo!s Ginc, 7i Sil)er, *old .luminum -a nesium, 7in

Si carbide .l o;ide Si nitride Si cr!stal

=1##> =111>

,arbon (ibers onl!

,F@$&?? (ibers'H
.ramid (ibers onl!

$ceramics > $metals >> $pol!mers

*lass-soda ,oncrete

.F@$&?? (ibers'H
*lass (ibers onl!

*F@$&?? (ibers'H *F@$H *raphite ,F@$H *F@$& (ibers'H ,F@$& (ibers' H .F@$& (ibers' H

1# I %a

2# 1# F 2 5 2 1 #.F #.2 #.5 #.2

%ol!ester %$7 %S %, %% 13%$ %7F$ L3%$

,omposite data based on rein(orced epo;! :ith 2# )olC o( ali ned carbon &,F@$', aramid &.F@$', or lass &*F@$' (ibers.

$po;! onl!




Example -' True Stress and True Strain Calculation

Compare engineering stress and strain .ith true stress and strain "or the aluminum alloy in Example 1 at $a% the maximum load. The diameter at maximum load is /.012 in. and at "racture is /.-13 in. Example - SOLUT O!

Strain Har$ening
An increa e in ! $%e to pla tic $eformation1
lar e hardenin small hardenin
unloa d
re load

!1 !

hardenin e;ponentB n" #.16 &some steels' to n" #.6 &some copper' JtrueK strainB ln&L+L o'

7 = , 7
JtrueK stress &F+.'

( )

Strain Har$ening 3n. N or C -al%e 8

7 = , 7
JtrueK stress &F+.'

( )

hardenin e;ponentB n" #.16 &some steels' to n" #.6 &some copper' JtrueK strainB ln&L+L o'

Mechanical &eha-ior ! Ceramic

) The tre ! train #eha-ior of #rittle ceramic i not % %ally o#taine$ #y a ten ile te t1
:1 It i $iffic%lt to prepare an$ te t pecimen +ith pecific geometry1 61 It i $iffic%lt to grip #rittle material +itho%t fract%ring them1 ;1 Ceramic fail after ro%ghly 51:7 train0 pecimen ha-e to #e perfectly aligne$1

The 4end Test "or 4rittle *aterials

4end test - +pplication o" a "orce to the center o" a bar that is supported on each end to determine the resistance o" the material to a static or applied load. ,lexural strength or modulus o" rupture -The stress re5uired to "racture a specimen in a bend test. ,lexural modulus - The modulus o" elasticity calculated "rom the results o" a bend test# giving the slope o" the stress-de"lection curve.

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The stress-strain behavior of brittle materials compared with that of more ductile materials

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(a) The bend test often used for measuring the strength of brittle materials, and (b) the deflection obtained by bending

>le9%ral Strength
) ) Schematic for a ;! point #en$ing te t1 A#le to mea %re the tre ! train #eha-ior an$ fle9%ral trength of #rittle ceramic 1 >le9%ral trength 3mo$%l% of r%pt%re or #en$ trength8 i the tre at fract%re1

See Ta#le 716 for more -al%e 1



A @oom 7 beha)ior is usuall! elastic, :ith brittle (ailure.

A 3-%oint Lend 7estin o(ten used.

--tensile tests are di((icult (or brittle materials. F cross section
L+2 L+2 d

circ. " midpoint de(lect ion

A 3etermine elastic modulus accordin toB

slope "



5bd 3
rect. cross section


12 @5
circ. cross section

linear-elastic beha)ior

A 3-point bend test to measure room 7 stren th.
cross section




circ. location o( ma; tension

A Fle;ural stren thB

(ail (s = m = Fma;

A 7!p. )aluesB

1.6Fma; L bd 2 rect.

Fma; L @3



(s &-%a' Si nitride 4##-1### Si carbide 66#-F2# .l o;ide 246-66# lass &soda' 2I

$&*%a' 3## 53# 3I# 2I

3ata (rom 7able 12.6, Callister 6e.



!Strain &eha-ior: Ela tomer

; $ifferent re pon e :
A O #rittle fail%re & O pla tic fail%re C ! highly ela tic 3ela tomer8
2# ; brittle (ailure 5# 2# # #
initialB amorphous chains are <in<ed, hea)il! cross-lin<ed.

plastic (ailure


(inal B chains are strai ht, still cross-lin<ed

3e(ormation is re)ersibleM

!!#rittle re pon e 3aligne$ chain. cro lin(e$ C net+or(e$ ca e8 !!pla tic re pon e 3 emi!cry talline ca e8


6ardness o" *aterials

6ardness test - *easures the resistance o" a material to penetration by a sharp ob7ect. *acrohardness - Overall bul8 hardness o" materials measured using loads 9& !. *icrohardness 6ardness o" materials typically measured using loads less than & ! using such test as :noop $6:%. !ano-hardness - 6ardness o" materials measured at 1; 1/ nm length scale using extremely small $<1// =!% "orces.

) Har$ne i a mea %re of a materialM re i tance to locali@e$ pla tic $eformation 3a mall $ent or cratch81 ) '%antitati-e har$ne techniA%e ha-e #een $e-elope$ +here a mall in$enter i force$ into the %rface of a material1 ) The $epth or i@e of the in$entation i mea %re$. an$ corre pon$ to a har$ne n%m#er1 ) The ofter the material. the larger an$ $eeper the in$entation 3an$ lo+er har$ne n%m#er81

) Re i tance to permanently in$enting the %rface1 ) Large har$ne mean :
!!re i tance to pla tic $eformation or crac(ing in compre ion1 !!#etter +ear propertie 1
e. ., 1#mm sphere appl! <no:n (orce &1 to 1### ' measure siNe o( indent a(ter remo)in load

most plastics brasses .l allo!s

eas! to machine steels (ile hard

Smaller indents mean lar er hardness.

cuttin tools nitrided steels diamond

increasin hardness
.dapted (rom Fi . 2.1F, ,allister 2e. &Fi . 2.1F is adapted (rom *.F. Oinne!, $n ineerin %roperties and .pplications o( %lastics, p. 2#2, Pohn 9ile! and Sons, 1I64.'


Te ter



Con-er ion of Har$ne Scale

Al o ee: ASTM E:B5 ! 57

1olume *.)*# Stan$ar$ Har$ne Con-er ion Ta#le for Metal Relation hip Among &rinell Har$ne . Fic(er Har$ne . Roc(+ell Har$ne . S%perficial Har$ne . Nnoop Har$ne . an$ Sclero cope Har$ne

Correlation #et+een Har$ne an$ Ten ile Strength

) &oth har$ne an$ ten ile trength are in$icator of a metalM re i tance to pla tic $eformation1 ) >or ca t iron. teel an$ #ra . the t+o are ro%ghly proportional1 ) Ten ile trength 3p i8 4 L55P&HR


) Stre an$ train: The e are i@e!in$epen$ent mea %re of loa$ an$ $i placement. re pecti-ely1 ) Ela tic #eha-ior: Thi re-er i#le #eha-ior often ho+ a linear relation #et+een tre an$ train1 To minimi@e $eformation. elect a material +ith a large ela tic mo$%l% 3E or D81 ) Pla tic #eha-ior: Thi permanent $eformation #eha-ior occ%r +hen the ten ile 3or compre i-e8 %nia9ial tre reache y1 ) To%ghne : The energy nee$e$ to #rea( a %nit -ol%me of material1 ) "%ctility: The pla tic train at fail%re1