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Support System

8.1 SUPPORT SYSTEM IN ANIMALS

• The skeletal system :  Bones  Cartilage : a strong flexible tissue found in the joint parts of the bones  Tendons : a strong tissue which connects the muscles to the bones  Ligaments : strong tissue connecting the bones together in the joint parts and supports the muscles

Support system

Types of skeletal Systems • There are 3 types of skeletal systems : 1) Endoskeleton : (human. . animal / land & Aquatic vertebrates) a supporting framework of bones or other structures located inside the body 2) Exoskeleton : (invertebrates) hard outer skin or shell 3) Hydrostatic skeleton : (invertebrates) a support provided by fluids under pressure in the body cavity.

SUPPORT SYSTEM IN ANIMALS VERTEBRATE INVERTEBRATE LAND WATER/ AQUATIC LAND WATER ENDOSKELETON EXOSKELETON HYDROSTATIC SKELETON .

rib cage 2) Appendicular skeleton : Pectoral girdle. lower limbs . upper limbs. pelvic girdle. backbone.The skeletons of land vertebrates • The skeletons of land vertebrates have two sections : 1) Axial skeletons : Skull.

Support system for vertebrates • Each species has their own special structure according to their different habitat and lifestyles. • For example : i) Cats & horses .have backbones which are curved upward or downwards to support muscles attached to the backbones i) Lion & tiger -have skeletons with powerful bones to run fast -have rigid and thick bones to adapt their habitat i) Elephants -require a big and strong skeleton structure to support their weight .

heart. lungs and spinal cord from injury • Help body to move • Contains and protect the bone marrow • Provide a storage area for salts such as calcium .Function of support systems in land vertebrates • To support the weight of the body • Provide a frame to retain the shape and structure of the body • To protect some internal organs such as brain.

Aquatic vertebrates • Water helps sea creatures support their weight • The bones of aquatic vertebrate animals contain more cartilage than land vertebrates • Cartilage makes the bone structure more flexible and allows the aquatic animals to move through the water at high speeds .

Function of support systems in aquatic vertebrates • • • • • Giving shape & structure Providing protection Enabling movement Red blood cell production Storing salts .

Swims with an up and down movements of its posterior .The differences between dolphin and shark is that they have different appendicular and swims differently • Dolphin .Horizontal tail is suitable for this movement • Shark .swims with a sideway movement of its whole body and needs a vertical tail .

Aquatic vertebrate AQUATIC VERTEBRATES AQUATIC MAMMAL AQUATIC REPTILES FISH DOLPHIN WHALES SEA TURTLES FISH WITH BONE SKELETONS FISH WITH CARTILAGE SKELETONS 95% OF FISH SHARK SKATES RAYS .

Skeleton systems for aquatic vertebrates .

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Comparing the support systems in land and aquatic vertebrates SIMILARITIES BETWEEN LAND AND AQUATIC VERTEBRATES GIVE SHAPE & STRUCTURE ALLOW TO MOVE CONSIST OF THE SKULL. THE AXIAL SKELETON & THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON PROTECT INTERNAL ORGANS FROM INJURY CONTAINS & PROTECT THE BONE MARROW STORE SALTS SUCH AS CALCIUM .

The differences of support systems in land and aquatic vertebrates Feature Land vertebrate Less Low Stronger & heavier Elastic cartilage Flexibility Bones Aquatic vertebrate More High Weaker & lighter Visceral skeleton No Yes .

Support systems in Animal .

8.2 SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN PLANTS .

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VARIOUS SUPPORT IN WOODY PLANTS PRIMARY GROWTH SECONDARY GROWTH SIDEWISE ENLARGEMENT IN THE DIAMETER OF THE STEM GROWTH IN THE LENGTH OF THE ROOTS & STEMS .

GROWING RING SHAPED REGION CALLED VASCULAR CAMBIUM PRODUCE 2 TISSUE PHLOEM XYLEM TRANSPORTS FOOD IN THE PLANTS FORMS THE BARK OF OUTSIDE OF THE PLANT FORMS TRANSPORTS HARDWOOD WATER OF THE INSIDE & MINERAL OF THE PLANT .

STORY OF THE RING : During spring and summer new xylem cells are produced XYLEM CELLS SPRING (SPRINGWOOD) SUMMER (SUMMERWOOD) LARGE SIZE LIGHT COLOUR SMALL SIZE DARK COLOUR .

The sum of the springwood & summerwood is called annual ring ANNUAL RING Can determine THE AGE OF THE TREE = NUMBER OF ANNUAL RING THE AMOUNT OF RAINFALL THOSE YEARS DAMAGES DUE TO FIRE .

Growth and support in woody plants ROOTS PROVIDE SUPPORT BY ANCHORING THE PLANTS BUTTRESS ROOTS PROP ROOTS STILT ROOTS STRANGLING ROOTS .

Non-woody plants NON-WOODY PLANTS HERBACEOUS PLANTS STEM TURGIDITY TENDRILS .

Comparisons of woody and non-woody plants Feature Vascular structure arrangement Surface Support Woody plants Rings Hard & Rough Hard woody stem Can grow old Can grow large Non-woody plants Bundles Soft & fleshly Water pressure & strength of xylem Usually dies in winter Cannot grow large Age Size .

Aquatic plants AQUATIC PLANTS FLOATING WITH AIR SACS ROOTED TO THE SEDIMENT SOIL EXAMPLES : EXAMPLES : .

3 Appreciating the support systems in living things .8.

to perform nastic or tropic movement ii.Appreciating the support systems in living things • Animal -need support systems to keep our body in shape -enables us to move properly and freely -running. better exposure to sunlight. Protect important tissues & other tissues like the phloem in the plant . slithering and swimming • Plant -need support systems for standing upright. flower production & dispersion of seeds -Support tissue : i.

EXERCISE  GIVE THE EXAMPLE OF ANIMALS FOR THE TYPE OF SUPPORT SYSTEM GIVEN IN FIGURE 1 .

FIGURE 1 .

EXERCISE • COMPLETE THE DIAGRAM BELOW WITH SUITABLE ANSWER .