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By : Group 2
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Johandi Luthfi Alhamdhani Mellyani Santy Yunita Kusumawardani

The Tyler Model

Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction (1949 by Ralph Tyler ) in which he asked 4 questions: 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? 3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organised? 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

In essence, Tylers questions represent the four-step sequence of 1. identifying purposes or objectives, 2. selecting the means for the attainment or achievement of these objectives i.e. what educational or teaching-learning experiences have to be provided for students, 3. organising these educational or teaching-learning experiences, and 4. evaluating the outcomes or what have students attained or achieved.

identifying purposes or objectives,

The data should be gathered from three sources, namely; 1. the subject area (eg. science, mathematics, geography, history), 2. the learners (eg. economically disadvantaged, gifted, varying academic abilities) and 3. society (eg. ethics, patriotism, national unity, environmental awareness, employment, market needs).

selecting the means for the attainment

The learning experiences have to take into account the previous experiences learners bring to a situation. The learning experiences will have to be selected based on what is known about human learning and human development.

organising these educational or teaching-learning experiences

He emphasised that the experiences should be properly organised so as to enhance learning and suggested that ideas, concept, values and skills be used as organising elements woven into the curriculum.

It was necessary for educators to know whether the selected learning experiences produced the intended results.

evaluating the outcomes or what have students attained or achieved

Through evaluation it will be possible to determine whether the curriculum was effective or ineffective.

The Taba Model

Another approach to curriculum development was proposed by Hilda Taba in her book Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice published in 1962. She argued that there was a definite order in creating a curriculum.

Teacher input Evaluatio n

Organisation of Learning Activities

Diagnosis of Needs

Teacher input

Formulation of Objectives

Selection of Learning Activities

Selection of
Organisation of Content


Diagnosis of need: The teacher who is also the curriculum designer starts the process by identifying the needs of students for whom the curriculum is planned. For example, the majority of students are unable to think critically. Formulation of objectives: After the teacher has identified needs that require attention, he or she specifies objectives to be accomplished. Selection of content: The objectives selected or created suggest the subject matter or content of the curriculum. Not only should objectives and content match, but also the validity and significance of the content chosen needs to be determined. i.e. the relevancy and significance of content. Organisation of content: A teacher cannot just select content, but must organise it in some type of sequence, taking into consideration the maturity of learners, their academic achievement, and their interests.

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Selection of learning experiences: Content must be presented to students and students must be engaged with the content. At this point, the teacher selects instructional methods that will involve the students with the content.
Organisation of learning activities: Just as content must be sequenced and organised, so must the learning activities. Often, the sequence of the learning activities is determined by the content. But the teacher needs to keep in mind the particular students whom he or she will be teaching. Evaluation and means of evaluation: The curriculum planner must determine just what objectives have been accomplished. Evaluation procedures need to be designed to evaluate learning outcomes.



The Saylor and Alexander Model

According to them, curriculum is a plan for providing sets of learning opportunities to achieve broad educational goals and related specific objectives for an identifiable population served by a single school centre

Bases (external variables)

Goals, objectives and domains

Curriculum designing

Curriculum implementation

Curriculum evaluation


Goals, Objectives and Domains: Curriculum planners begin by specifying the major educational goals and specific objectives they wish to accomplish. Each major goal represents a curriculum domain and they advocate 4 major goals or domains: personal development, human relations, continued learning skills and specialisation. The goals, objectives and domains are selected after careful consideration of several external variables such as findings from educational research, accreditation standards, views of community groups and others. Curriculum Designing: Once the goals, objectives and domains have been established, planners move into the process of designing the curriculum. Here decision is made on the appropriate learning opportunities for each domain and how and when these opportunities will be provided. Will the curriculum be designed along the lines of academic disciplines, or according to student needs and interests or along themes? These are some of the questions that need to be answered at this stage of the development process Curriculum Implementation: After the designs have been created the next step is implementation of the designs by teachers. Based on the design of the curriculum plan teachers would specify instructional objectives and then select relevant teaching methods and strategies to achieve the desired learning outcomes among students in the classroom Evaluation: Finally, curriculum planner and teachers engage in evaluation. The model proposed that evaluation should be comprehensive using a variety of evaluation techniques. Evaluation should involve the total educational programme of the school and the curriculum plan, the effectiveness of instruction and the achievement of students. Through the evaluation process, curriculum planner and developers can determine whether or nor the goals of the school and the objectives of instruction have been met.

5.3 Goals of Education

At the beginning of this chapter shows the kinds of decisions that curriculum workers have to make in some education system somewhere in the world. Some decisions are relatively simple such as adding a course, deleting a course or making some minor changes to content. Other decisions are sweeping and far-reaching such as changing the levels of schooling from 6-3-2-2 (six years of primary or elementary school, three years of lower secondary, two years of upper secondary and two years pre-university or matriculation) to 64-2 (six years of primary or elementary school, four years of secondary and two years of pre-university or matriculation). How does one decide? All the three models of curriculum development emphasised the need from the onset to plan statements of purpose of the education system.

5.4. Levels of Goals

Goals can be written at several levels of generality involving many curriculum workers such as teachers, subject specialists, academics, principals, teacher trainers, administrators and others who may be engaged in curriculum efforts on several levels at the same time

5.4.1 Educational philosophy

1. The initial task of curriculum planners is identification of an educational vision or philosophy which will form the basis of planning. 2. The educational philosophy of an educational system is a reflection of national policies. 3. In relation to socio-cultural needs, the culture of peace, conflict resolutions etc. could emerge as important aspects that should be highlighted in the school curriculum. The needs of disabled persons and adults who have lost opportunities for learning have to be incorporated too. Opportunities for vocational and career education have to be provided in the curriculum. Therefore, vocational interests of students have to be assessed. 4. In addition, curriculum planners should not only study current best practices, customs, and beliefs about education in the local schools but should compare these to the educational research literature on best practices in teaching, learning, and curriculum design

Education Goals
Educational goals are outcomes to be achieved by students at the end of a particular period of time in school. While certain goals are universal and run throughout the period some are specific to particular levels and times. This means that a child will be facing different goals at different levels. The goals are the basic elements in curriculum planning and should be clear and well articulated without ambiguities. All these relate to human behaviour. In a country recovering from a civil war, its key educational goals might be peace, developing self-confidence, cooperation, responsible citizenship needed to overcome the existing conflicts. Actually, there could be a plethora of goals such as developing creativity, mental health, coping with change, informed participation, basic skills and so forth, ending on the vision and cultural needs of the society. Connecting development needs to education is an important strategy to achieve greater impact of education on society.

Curriculum Goals
A curriculum goal is a purpose or desired end stated in general terms. No time period is specified when the goals must be reached. Neither is mention of the criteria for achievement or mastery. Curriculum planners expect students to accomplish it as a result of exposure to segments or all of a programme in a particular educational institution. Goals provide direction for the curriculum. For example: Students shall acquire knowledge and skills necessary for functioning as good citizens in their own school and community. Schools should seek to promote the physical and emotional health of students

Curriculum Objectives
Curriculum objectives are derived from the curriculum goal. A curriculum objective is a purpose or end stated in specific, measurable terms. It is a refinement of the curriculum goals. They specify the performance standards for the students for whom the curriculum is designed. From the curriculum goal; Students shall acquire knowledge and skills necessary for functioning on a daily basis, as good citizens in their own school and community setting; the following curriculum objectives can be derived: The majority of students will obey the rules and regulations of the school More than 80% of students will be involved in at least one voluntary activity Note how the curriculum objective refines the curriculum goal. Many curriculum objectives can emanate from a single curriculum goal.

Instructional Goals
At the instructional phase, curriculum objectives are translated initially into instructional goals. An instructional goal is a statement of performance expected of each student in a class stated in general terms. It is the general intentions of a course of instruction without criteria of achievement. For example, Students will show an understanding about the tropical rainforest. It indicates the performance expected; i.e. understand, but the performance level or criteria is not stated. So it is not easily measured. Instructional goals points the way to instructional objectives.

Instructional Objectives
An instructional objective is a statement of performance to be demonstrated by each student in a class. It is stated in a form that is measurable and observable. Other names given for instructional objectives are specific instructional objectives, specific learning outcomes, behavioural objectives performance objectives, and competencies. An example of an instructional objective is: At the end of the lesson students should be able to describe five characteristics of the tropical rainforest. It is important that you state clearly the instructional objectives you intend to achieve at the end of a period of instruction. It determines the selection of content (textbook, the internet, reference books), the teaching learning methods (lectures, practical sessions, group discussions, self study, field visits) to be adopted, learning resources (audio-visual aids, equipment, kits) you will utilise and how you intend to evaluate whether the desired learning outcomes have been achieved. Let us examine in detail about instructional objectives.

5.5. Instructional Objectives or Learning Outcomes Instructional objectives are the learning outcomes desired and are of primary importance in developing a curriculum. Objectives point to the appropriate content to be selected, how teaching and learning is to be conducted and ways of assessing performance in the subject. In the teacher-centred approach, teaching is generally seen to be about the transmission of knowledge. Focus is on what the teacher did, and goals of the subject area were expressed in terms of the content which the teacher would transmit. In the learner-centred approach, however, the focus is on what the learner does, and the intentions of a subject area are usually expressed in terms of how the learner will be changed as a result of learning that content. Teaching then becomes a series of strategies which are devised in order to help students achieve these objectives / outcomes.

5.6. Classifying Instructional Objectives or Learning Outcomes The classification of learning objectives or outcomes was developed by a team led by Benjamin Bloom in the 1950s. Three domains were addressed and for each taxonomy of abilities, emotions and skills were developed. Taxonomies are based on the assumption that different types of objectives are learned through different mental processes. The three taxonomies are: The Cognitive Domain which is concerned with mental or intellectual skills and abilities The Affective Domain which is concerned with feelings, values and attitudes The Psychomotor Domain which is concerned with physical skills

5.6.1 Cognitive Domain

Blooms taxonomy of the cognitive domain is perhaps the best known and most widely used. It lists a persons observable and unobservable intellectual abilities such as comprehending information, organising ideas, and evaluating information and actions. It categorises the types of cognitive learning outcomes that are featured at all levels of the curriculum. Bloom and his associated classified cognitive learnings in 6 major categories: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.

5.6.2 Affective Domain David R. Krathwohl and others, including Benjamin Bloom, developed a taxonomy of objectives in the affective domain in 1964. The affective domain relates to the manner in which we deal with things involving our emotions; such as our feelings, our values, how we appreciate something, our enthusiasm for something, what motivates us to do something and our attitudes towards something. Classified affaective learnings in 5 major categories: Receiving, Responding,
Valuing, Organisation, Characterisation.




There are several interpretations of the domain and one of them was developed by R. Dave in 1970. The psychomotor domain involves physical movement, coordination and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills require practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution. Classified psychomotor learnings in 5 major categories: Imitation, Manipulation, Precision, Articulation, Naturalisation.


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