You are on page 1of 22

Heat Transfer/Heat Exchanger

How is the heat transfer?

Mechanism of Convection

Applications .

Mean fluid Velocity and Boundary and their effect on the rate of heat
transfer.

Fundamental equation of heat transfer

o!arithmic"mean temperature difference.

Heat transfer Coefficients.

Heat flu# and $usselt correlation

%imulation pro!ram for Heat &#chan!er



How is the heat transfer?

Heat can transfer 'etween the surface of a solid conductor


and the surroundin! medium whenever temperature
!radient e#ists.
Conduction
Convection
$atural convection
Forced Convection

Natural and forced Convection

$atural convection occurs whenever heat flows


'etween a solid and fluid( or 'etween fluid
layers.

As a result of heat e#chan!e


Chan!e in density of effective fluid layers ta)en
place( which causes upward flow of heated
fluid.
*f this motion is associated with heat transfer mechanism
only( then it is called $atural Convection

Forced Convection

*f this motion is associated 'y mechanical means such as


pumps( !ravity or fans( the movement of the fluid is
enforced.

And in this case( we then spea) of Forced convection.



Heat &#chan!ers

A device whose primary purpose is the transfer of ener!y


'etween two fluids is named a Heat &#chan!er.

Applications of Heat &#chan!ers
Heat Exchangers
prevent car engine
overheating and
increase efficiency
Heat exchangers are
used in Industry for
heat transfer
Heat
exchangers are
used in AC and
furnaces

+he closed"type e#chan!er is the most popular one.

,ne e#ample of this type is the -ou'le pipe e#chan!er.

*n this type( the hot and cold fluid streams do not come
into direct contact with each other. +hey are separated 'y
a tu'e wall or flat plate.

.rinciple of Heat &#chan!er
First aw of +hermodynamic/ Energy is conserved.
generated s
in out
out in
e w q h m h m
dt
dE
& & & & & + + +
,
_

.


out in
h m h m
0
.
0
. & &
h
h
p h h
T C m A Q . . .
&
c
c
p c c
T C m A Q . . . &
0
0 0 0
Control Volume
Q
h
Cross Section Area
HO
CO!"
hermal #oundary !ayer

Q hot Q cold
T
h
T
i,wall
T
o,wall

c
$egion I % Hot !i&uid'
Solid Convection
(E)O(*S !A) O+
CCO!I(,

dq
x
= h
h
. T
h
T
iw
( )
.dA
$egion II % Conduction
Across Copper )all
+O-$IE$*S !A)

dq
x
= k.
dT
dr
$egion III% Solid .
Cold !i&uid
Convection
(E)O(*S !A) O+
CCO!I(,

dq
x
= h
c
. T
ow
T
c
( )
.dA
THERMAL
BOUNDARY LAYER
Energy moves from hot fluid
to a surface by convection,
through the wall by
conduction, and then by
convection from the surface to
the cold fluid.

elocity distribution and boundary layer


1hen fluid flow throu!h a circular tu'e of uniform cross"
suction and fully developed(
+he velocity distri'ution depend on the type of the flow.
*n laminar flow the volumetric flowrate is a function of the
radius.
V= u2rdr
r=0
r=D/ 2

V = volumetric flowrate
u = average mean velocity

*n tur'ulent flow( there is no such distri'ution.

+he molecule of the flowin! fluid which ad2acent to the


surface have 3ero velocity 'ecause of mass"attractive
forces. ,ther fluid particles in the vicinity of this layer(
when attemptin! to slid over it( are slow down 'y viscous
forces.

r
Boundary
layer

Accordin!ly the temperature !radient is lar!er at the wall


and throu!h the viscous su'"layer( and small in the
tur'ulent core.

+he reason for this is


45 Heat must transfer throu!h the 'oundary layer 'y
conduction.
65 Most of the fluid have a low thermal conductivity 7)5
85 1hile in the tur'ulent core there are a rapid movin!
eddies( which they are equali3in! the temperature.
heating
cooling
Tube wall
T
wh
T
wc
T
c
Metal
wall

q
x
= hAT
q
x
= hA(T
w
T)

q
x
=
k

A(T
w
T)
h

9e!ion * / Hot iquid :
%olid Convection

T
h
T
iw
=
q
x
h
h
.A
i

q
x
= h
hot
. T
h
T
iw
( )
.A
9e!ion ** / Conduction
Across Copper 1all

q
x
=
k
copper
.2L
ln
r
o
r
i

T
o,wall
T
i,wall
=
q
x
.ln
r
o
r
i






k
copper
.2L
9e!ion *** / %olid :
Cold iquid Convection

T
o,wall
T
c
=
q
x
h
c
.A
o

q
x
= h
c
T
o,wall
T
c
( )
A
o
/

T
h
T
c
= q
x
1
h
h
.A
i
+
ln
r
o
r
i






k
copper
.2L
+
1
h
c
.A
o











q
x
=U.A. T
h
T
c
( )
4
4
.
ln .
.

1
1
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

! " The #verall Heat Transfer Coefficient $%/m.&'

T
h
T
c
=
q
x
R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3

U =
1
A.R
r
o
r
i

Calculatin! ; usin! o! Mean +emperature
cold hot
dq dq dq
c h
T T T
c h
dT dT T d ) (
h
h
p h h
dT C m dq . .
&

c
c
p c c
dT C m dq . .
&

Hot Stream %
Cold Stream%

,
_


c
p c
c
h
p h
h
C m
dq
C m
dq
T d
. .
5 7
dA T U dq . .

,
_

+
c
p c
h
p h
C m C m
dA T U T d
.
4
.
4
. . . 5 7

,
_

6
4
6
4
.
.
4
.
4
.
5 7
A
A
c
p c
h
p h
T
T
dA
C m C m
U
T
T d
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
out
c
in
c
out
h
in
h c h
T T T T
q
A U
T T
q
A U
T
T
< < < < = > ? > < =

>
> . . .
ln
4
6

,
_

6
4
6
4
. .
5 7
A
A
c
c
h
h
T
T
dA
q
T
q
T
U
T
T d

,
_

4
6
4 6
ln
.
T
T
T T
A U q
!og 0ean emperature

CO( C-$$E( +!O)

,
_



4
6
4 6
ln
T
T
T T
T
Ln
@ 8 4
T T T T T
in
c
in
h

4A B 6
T T T T T
out
c
out
h

CO-(E$ C-$$E( +!O)
4A B 6
T T T T T
in
c
out
h

@ 8 4
T T T T T
out
c
in
h

U =
& m
h
.
&
C
p
h
. T
3
T
6
( )
A.T
Ln
=
& m
c
.
&
C
p
c
. T
7
T
10
( )
A.T
Ln
T1
T2
T4 T5
T3
T7 T8 T9
T10
T6
Counter - Current Flow
T1
T2
T4 T5
T6
T3
T7
T8 T9
T10
Parallel Flow
!og 0ean emperature evaluation
T
1
A
1 2
T
2
T
3
T
6
T
4
T
6
T
7
T
8
T
9
T
10
Wall
T1
T2
A
A
1 2

T
1
A
1 2
T
2
T
3
T
6
T
4
T
6
T
7
T
8
T
9
T
10
Wall

q = h
h
A
i
T
lm

T
lm
=
(T
3
T
1
) (T
6
T
2
)
ln
(T
3
T
1
)
(T
6
T
2
)

q = h
c
A
o
T
lm

T
lm
=
(T
1
T
7
) (T
2
T
10
)
ln
(T
1
T
7
)
(T
2
T
10
)

Nu = f (Re,Pr, L/ D,
b
/
o
)
"I0E(SIO(!ESS A(A!1SIS O CHA$ACE$I2E A HEA E3CHA(,E$

. . v
!
C
p
.
!
h.

Nu = a.Re
b
.Pr
c
Further Simplifiatio!"
Can #e O4tained from 5 set of experiments
One set6 run for constant 7r
And second set6 run for constant $e
q =
k

A(T
w
T)
h
Nu=
D

For laminar flow


$u = 4.B6 79eC.rCD-5

Em(irical Correlation
4E . A
8 D 4 F . A
. .r . 9e . A6B . A

,
_

,ood o 7redict 8ithin 59:


Conditions% !;" < =9
9>? @ 7r @ =?6A99
$e < 596999

For tur'ulent flow



&#perimental
Apparatus
8o copper concentric pipes
Inner pipe BI" C A>D mm6 O" C D>E mm6 ! C =>9E mF
Outer pipe BI" C ==>= mm6 O" C =5>A mmF
hermocouples placed at =9 locations along exchanger6 = through =9
Hot Flow
Rotameter#
Temperature
$!%iator
&ol% Flow
rotameter
Heat
&o!troller
Swith for o!urre!t
a!% ou!terurre!t
flow
Temperature
&o!troller


A
GA
4AA
4GA
6AA
6GA
4GA 64GA E4GA B4GA F4GA 4A4GA 464GA
)r*+ ,e*-
Nus
&#amples of &#p. 9esults
E
E.6
E.E
E.B
E.F
A.B A.F 4 4.6 4.E
ln .)r/
ln .Nu/
5
5>E
G
G>E
H
H>E
E
E>E
?
D>I =9 =9>5 =9>H =9>? =9>I ==
ln .,e/
ln .Nu/
heoretical trend
y C 0'(00)x . G>9IH=
Experimental trend
y C 0'*+,,x . G>EH=E
heoretical trend
y C 0'--.*x / H>5EGG
Experimental trend
y C 0'/,))x . G>I9DA
heoretical trend
y C 0'0),x
Experimental trend
y C 0'0.*0x . H>9HD
Experimental (u C 9>9=AE$e
9>AD??
7r
9>H?55
heoretical (u C 9>95?$e
9>I
7r
9>GG

0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
0 1 2 3 4
Velocity in the core tube (ms
-1
)
Heat Transfer Coefficient Wm
-2
K
-
hi (W/m2K)
ho (W/m2K)
U (W/m2K)
Effect of core tube velocity on the local and
over all Heat Transfer coefficients