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1

**REGISTER TRANSFER AND MICROOPERATIONS
**

• Register Transfer Language • Register Transfer • Bus and Memory Transfers • Arithmetic Microoperations • Logic Microoperations • Shift Microoperations • Arithmetic Logic Shift Unit

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**SIMPLE DIGITAL SYSTEMS
**

• Combinational and sequential circuits (learned in Chapters 1 and 2) can be used to create simple digital systems. • These are the low-level building blocks of a digital computer. • Simple digital systems are frequently characterized in terms of

– the registers they contain, and – the operations that they perform.

• Typically,

– What operations are performed on the data in the registers – What information is passed between registers

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Register Transfer Language

MICROOPERATIONS (1)

• The operations on the data in registers are called microoperations. • The functions built into registers are examples of microoperations

– – – – – Shift Load Clear Increment …

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Register Transfer Language

MICROOPERATION (2)

An elementary operation performed (during one clock pulse), on the information stored in one or more registers

Registers (R)

ALU (f)

1 clock cycle

**R ← f(R, R) f: shift, load, clear, increment, add, subtract, complement, and, or, xor, …
**

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Register Transfer Language

**ORGANIZATION OF A DIGITAL SYSTEM
**

• Definition of the (internal) organization of a computer - Set of registers and their functions - Microoperations set Set of allowable microoperations provided by the organization of the computer - Control signals that initiate the sequence of microoperations (to perform the functions)

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Register Transfer Language

**REGISTER TRANSFER LEVEL
**

• Viewing a computer, or any digital system, in this way is called the register transfer level • This is because we’re focusing on

– The system’s registers – The data transformations in them, and – The data transfers between them.

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Register Transfer Language

**REGISTER TRANSFER LANGUAGE
**

• Rather than specifying a digital system in words, a specific notation is used, register transfer language • For any function of the computer, the register transfer language can be used to describe the (sequence of) microoperations • Register transfer language

– A symbolic language – A convenient tool for describing the internal organization of digital computers – Can also be used to facilitate the design process of digital systems.

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Register Transfer Language

DESIGNATION OF REGISTERS

• Registers are designated by capital letters, sometimes followed by numbers (e.g., A, R13, IR) • Often the names indicate function:

– MAR – PC – IR - memory address register - program counter - instruction register

**• Registers and their contents can be viewed and represented in various ways
**

– A register can be viewed as a single entity: MAR

– Registers may also be represented showing the bits of data they contain

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Register Transfer Language

DESIGNATION OF REGISTERS

• Designation of a register - a register - portion of a register - a bit of a register

**• Common ways of drawing the block diagram of a register
**

Register Showing individual bits

R1

15

7

0 15

6

5

4

8 7

3

2

1

0

0

R2

Numbering of bits

PC(H)

Subfields

PC(L)

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Register Transfer

REGISTER TRANSFER

• Copying the contents of one register to another is a register transfer • A register transfer is indicated as

R2 ← R1

– In this case the contents of register R2 are copied (loaded) into register R1 – A simultaneous transfer of all bits from the source R1 to the destination register R2, during one clock pulse – Note that this is a non-destructive; i.e. the contents of R1 are not altered by copying (loading) them to R2

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Register Transfer

REGISTER TRANSFER

• A register transfer such as

**R3 ← R5 Implies that the digital system has
**

– the data lines from the source register (R5) to the destination register (R3) – Parallel load in the destination register (R3) – Control lines to perform the action

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Register Transfer

CONTROL FUNCTIONS

• Often actions need to only occur if a certain condition is true • This is similar to an “if” statement in a programming language • In digital systems, this is often done via a control signal, called a control function

– If the signal is 1, the action takes place

• This is represented as:

P: R2 ← R1 Which means “if P = 1, then load the contents of register R1 into register R2”, i.e., if (P = 1) then (R2 ← R1)

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Register Transfer

HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTROLLED TRANSFERS Implementation of controlled transfer P: R2 ← R1

Block diagram

Control Circuit

P

Load

R2

n

Clock

R1

Timing diagram

Clock Load

t

t+1

Transfer occurs here

• The same clock controls the circuits that generate the control function and the destination register • Registers are assumed to use positive-edge-triggered flip-flops

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Register Transfer

SIMULTANEOUS OPERATIONS

• If two or more operations are to occur simultaneously, they are separated with commas P: R3 ← R5, MAR ← IR • Here, if the control function P = 1, load the contents of R5 into R3, and at the same time (clock), load the contents of register IR into register MAR

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Register Transfer

BASIC SYMBOLS FOR REGISTER TRANSFERS

Symbols

Capital letters & numerals Parentheses () Arrow ← Colon : Comma ,

Description

Denotes a register Denotes a part of a register Denotes transfer of information Denotes termination of control function Separates two micro-operations

Examples

MAR, R2 R2(0-7), R2(L) R2 ← R1 P: A ← B, B ← A

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Register Transfer

CONNECTING REGISTRS

• In a digital system with many registers, it is impractical to have data and control lines to directly allow each register to be loaded with the contents of every possible other registers • To completely connect n registers n(n-1) lines • O(n2) cost

– This is not a realistic approach to use in a large digital system

• Instead, take a different approach • Have one centralized set of circuits for data transfer – the bus • Have control circuits to select which register is the source, and which is the destination

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Bus and Memory Transfers

**BUS AND BUS TRANSFER
**

Bus is a path(of a group of wires) over which information is transferred, from any of several sources to any of several destinations. From a register to bus: BUS ← R

Register A Register B Register C Register D

Bus lines

Register A 1 2 3 4 B1 C1 D 1 0 4 x1 MUX x select y

Register B 1 2 3 4 B2 C2 D 2 0 4 x1 MUX

Register C 1 2 3 4 B3 C3 D 3 0 4 x1 MUX

Register D 1 2 3 4 B4 C 4 D 4 0 4 x1 MUX

4-line bus

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Bus and Memory Transfers

**TRANSFER FROM BUS TO A DESTINATION REGISTER
**

Bus lines Reg. R0 Reg. R1 Reg. R2 Reg. R3 Load

z Select w

D 0 D1 D2 D 3 2x4 Decoder

E (enable)

**Three-State Bus Buffers
**

Normal input A Control input C Output Y=A if C=1 High-impedence if C=0

**Bus line with three-state buffers
**

A0 B0 C0 D0 Select Enable Computer Organization S0 S1 0 1 2 3

Bus line for bit 0

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Bus and Memory Transfers

**BUS TRANSFER IN RTL
**

• Depending on whether the bus is to be mentioned explicitly or not, register transfer can be indicated as either R2 ← R1 or BUS ← R1, R2 ← BUS • In the former case the bus is implicit, but in the latter, it is explicitly indicated

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Bus and Memory Transfers

MEMORY (RAM)

• Memory (RAM) can be thought as a sequential circuits containing some number of registers • These registers hold the words of memory • Each of the r registers is indicated by an address • These addresses range from 0 to r-1 • Each register (word) can hold n bits of data • Assume the RAM contains r = 2k words. It needs the following

– – – – – n data input lines n data output lines k address lines A Read control line A Write control line

data input lines n address lines k Read Write n data output lines Computer Organization Computer Architectures Lab

RAM unit

Register Transfer & µ -operations

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Bus and Memory Transfers

MEMORY TRANSFER

• Collectively, the memory is viewed at the register level as a device, M. • Since it contains multiple locations, we must specify which address in memory we will be using • This is done by indexing memory references • Memory is usually accessed in computer systems by putting the desired address in a special register, the Memory Address Register (MAR, or AR) • When memory is accessed, the contents of the MAR get sent to the memory unit’s address lines

M

AR Memory unit Data out Computer Organization Data in Computer Architectures Lab Read Write

Register Transfer & µ -operations

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Bus and Memory Transfers

MEMORY READ

• To read a value from a location in memory and load it into a register, the register transfer language notation looks like this: R1 ← M[MAR] • This causes the following to occur

– The contents of the MAR get sent to the memory address lines – A Read (= 1) gets sent to the memory unit – The contents of the specified address are put on the memory’s output data lines – These get sent over the bus to be loaded into register R1

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Bus and Memory Transfers

MEMORY WRITE

• To write a value from a register to a location in memory looks like this in register transfer language: M[MAR] ← R1 • This causes the following to occur

– The contents of the MAR get sent to the memory address lines – A Write (= 1) gets sent to the memory unit – The values in register R1 get sent over the bus to the data input lines of the memory – The values get loaded into the specified address in the memory

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Bus and Memory Transfers

**SUMMARY OF R. TRANSFER MICROOPERATIONS
**

A← B Transfer content of reg. B into reg. A Transfer content of AD portion of reg. DR into reg. AR Transfer a binary constant into reg. A Transfer content of R1 into bus A and, at the same time, transfer content of bus A into R2 Address register Data register Memory word specified by reg. R Equivalent to M[AR] Memory read operation: transfers content of memory word specified by AR into DR Memory write operation: transfers content of DR into memory word specified by AR

AR ← DR(AD) ABUS ← R1, R2 ← ABUS AR DR M[R] M DR ← M M ← DR

A ← constant

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Arithmetic Microoperations

MICROOPERATIONS

• Computer system microoperations are of four types: - Register transfer microoperations - Arithmetic microoperations - Logic microoperations - Shift microoperations

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Arithmetic Microoperations

ARITHMETIC MICROOPERATIONS

• The basic arithmetic microoperations are

– – – – Addition Subtraction Increment Decrement

**• The additional arithmetic microoperations are
**

– – – – Add with carry Subtract with borrow Transfer/Load etc. …

**Summary of Typical Arithmetic Micro-Operations
**

R3 ← R3 ← R2 ← R2 ← R3 ← R1 ← R1 ← R1 + R2 R1 - R2 R2’ R2’+ 1 R1 + R2’+ 1 R1 + 1 R1 - 1 Contents of R1 plus R2 transferred to R3 Contents of R1 minus R2 transferred to R3 Complement the contents of R2 2's complement the contents of R2 (negate) subtraction Increment Decrement Computer Architectures Lab

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Arithmetic Microoperations

**BINARY ADDER / SUBTRACTOR / INCREMENTER
**

B 3 A 3 F A C 3 B 2 F A A 2 C 2 B 1 F A A 1 C 1 B 0 F A A 0 C 0

Binary Adder

C 4

S 3

B 3 A 3 B 2

S 2

A 2 B 1

S 1

A 1 B 0

S 0

A 0

**Binary Adder-Subtractor
**

M

F A

C 3

F A

C 2

F A

C 1

F A

C 0

C 4

S 3

S 2

A 2

S 1

A 1

S 0

A 0 1

Binary Incrementer A 3

x y

x

y

x

y

x

y

H A

C S

H A

C S

H A

C S

H A

C S

C 4

S 3

S 2

S 1

S 0

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Arithmetic Microoperations

ARITHMETIC CIRCUIT

Cin S1 S0 A0 B0 A1 B1 A2 B2 A3 B3 0 1 S1 S0 0 4x1 1 MUX 2 3 S1 S0 0 4x1 1 MUX 2 3 S1 S0 0 4x1 1 MUX 2 3 S1 S0 0 4x1 1 MUX 2 3 X0 Y0 X1 C0

FA

D0 C1 C1

FA

Y1 X2 C2 C2

D1

FA

Y2 X3 C3 C3

D2

FA

Y3 C4

D3

Cout

S1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

S0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

Cin 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

Y B B B’ B’ 0 0 1 1

Output D=A+B D=A+B+1 D = A + B’ D = A + B’+ 1 D=A D=A+1 D=A-1 D=A

Microoperation Add Add with carry Subtract with borrow Subtract Transfer A Increment A Decrement A Transfer A

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Logic Microoperations

LOGIC MICROOPERATIONS

• Specify binary operations on the strings of bits in registers

– Logic microoperations are bit-wise operations, i.e., they work on the individual bits of data – useful for bit manipulations on binary data – useful for making logical decisions based on the bit value

• There are, in principle, 16 different logic functions that can be defined over two binary input variables

A 0 0 1 1

B 0 1 0 1

F0 0 0 0 0

F1 0 0 0 1

F2 … F13 0 … 1 0 … 1 1 … 0 0 … 1

F14 1 1 1 0

F15 1 1 1 1

**• However, most systems only implement four of these
**

– AND (∧), OR (∨), XOR (⊕ ), Complement/NOT

• The others can be created from combination of these

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Logic Microoperations

**LIST OF LOGIC MICROOPERATIONS
**

• List of Logic Microoperations

- 16 different logic operations with 2 binary vars. n - n binary vars → 2 2 functions

**• Truth tables for 16 functions of 2 variables and the corresponding 16 logic micro-operations
**

x 0011 y 0101 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Computer Organization Boolean Function F0 = 0 F1 = xy F2 = xy' F3 = x F4 = x'y F5 = y F6 = x ⊕ y F7 = x + y F8 = (x + y)' F9 = (x ⊕ y)' F10 = y' F11 = x + y' F12 = x' F13 = x' + y F14 = (xy)' F15 = 1 MicroName Operations F ←0 Clear F ← A ∧B AND F ← A ∧ B’ F ←A Transfer A F ← A’∧ B F ←B Transfer B F ←A ⊕ B Exclusive-OR F ← A ∨B OR F ← ( A ∨ B)’ NOR F ← (A ⊕ B)’ Exclusive-NOR F ← B’ Complement B F ← A ∨B F ← A’ Complement A F ← A’∨ B F ← (A ∧ B)’ NAND F ← all 1's Set to all 1's Computer Architectures Lab

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Logic Microoperations

**HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF LOGIC MICROOPERATIONS
**

Ai Bi 0 1 2 3 Select S1 S0

4X1 MUX

Fi

Function table

S1 0 0 1 1 S0 0 1 0 1 Output F = A ∧B F=A ∨ B F=A⊕ B F = A’ µ -operation AND OR XOR Complement

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Logic Microoperations

**APPLICATIONS OF LOGIC MICROOPERATIONS
**

• Logic microoperations can be used to manipulate individual bits or a portions of a word in a register • Consider the data in a register A. In another register, B, is bit data that will be used to modify the contents of A

– – – – – – – – Selective-set Selective-complement Selective-clear Mask (Delete) Clear Insert Compare ... A ←A + B A ←A ⊕ B A ← A • B’ A ←A • B A ←A ⊕ B A ← (A • B) + C A ←A ⊕ B

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Logic Microoperations

SELECTIVE SET

• In a selective set operation, the bit pattern in B is used to set certain bits in A 1100 1010 1110 At B At+1 (A ← A + B)

• If a bit in B is set to 1, that same position in A gets set to 1, otherwise that bit in A keeps its previous value

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Logic Microoperations

SELECTIVE COMPLEMENT

• In a selective complement operation, the bit pattern in B is used to complement certain bits in A 1100 1010 0110 At B At+1 (A ← A ⊕ B)

• If a bit in B is set to 1, that same position in A gets complemented from its original value, otherwise it is unchanged

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Logic Microoperations

SELECTIVE CLEAR

• In a selective clear operation, the bit pattern in B is used to clear certain bits in A 1100 1010 0100 At B At+1 (A ← A ⋅ B’)

• If a bit in B is set to 1, that same position in A gets set to 0, otherwise it is unchanged

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Logic Microoperations

MASK OPERATION

• In a mask operation, the bit pattern in B is used to clear certain bits in A 1100 1010 1000 At B At+1 (A ← A ⋅ B)

• If a bit in B is set to 0, that same position in A gets set to 0, otherwise it is unchanged

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Logic Microoperations

CLEAR OPERATION

• In a clear operation, if the bits in the same position in A and B are the same, they are cleared in A, otherwise they are set in A 1100 1010 0110 At B At+1 (A ← A ⊕ B)

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Logic Microoperations

INSERT OPERATION

• An insert operation is used to introduce a specific bit pattern into A register, leaving the other bit positions unchanged • This is done as

– A mask operation to clear the desired bit positions, followed by – An OR operation to introduce the new bits into the desired positions – Example » Suppose you wanted to introduce 1010 into the low order four bits of A: 1101 1000 1011 0001 A (Original) 1101 1000 1011 1010 A (Desired) » 1101 1000 1011 0001 A (Original)

1111 1101 0000 1101

1111 1000 0000 1000

1111 1011 0000 1011

0000 0000 1010 1010

Mask A (Intermediate) Added bits A (Desired)

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Shift Microoperations

SHIFT MICROOPERATIONS

• There are three types of shifts

– Logical shift – Circular shift – Arithmetic shift

• What differentiates them is the information that goes into the serial input • A right shift operation

Serial input

• A left shift operation

Serial input

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Shift Microoperations

LOGICAL SHIFT

• In a logical shift the serial input to the shift is a 0. • A right logical shift operation:

0

**• A left logical shift operation:
**

0

**• In a Register Transfer Language, the following notation is used
**

– shl for a logical shift left – shr for a logical shift right – Examples: » R2 ← shr R2 » R3 ← shl R3

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Shift Microoperations

CIRCULAR SHIFT

• In a circular shift the serial input is the bit that is shifted out of the other end of the register. • A right circular shift operation:

• A left circular shift operation:

**• In a RTL, the following notation is used
**

– cil for a circular shift left – cir for a circular shift right – Examples: » R2 ← cir R2 » R3 ← cil R3

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Shift Microoperations

ARITHMETIC SHIFT

• An arithmetic shift is meant for signed binary numbers (integer) • An arithmetic left shift multiplies a signed number by two • An arithmetic right shift divides a signed number by two • The main distinction of an arithmetic shift is that it must keep the sign of the number the same as it performs the multiplication or division • A right arithmetic shift operation:

sign bit

**• A left arithmetic shift operation:
**

sign bit

0

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Shift Microoperations

ARITHMETIC SHIFT

• An left arithmetic shift operation must be checked for the overflow

0

sign bit

V

Before the shift, if the leftmost two bits differ, the shift will result in an overflow

**• In a RTL, the following notation is used
**

for an arithmetic shift left – ashl for an arithmetic shift right – ashr – Examples: » R2 ← ashr R2 » R3 ← ashl R3

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Shift Microoperations

HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF SHIFT MICROOPERATIONS

Serial input (IR)

0 for shift right (down) Select 1 for shift left (up)

S 0 1 A0 A1 A2 A3 S 0 1 S 0 1 S 0 1 Serial input (IL) MUX MUX MUX MUX

H0

H1

H2

H3

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Shift Microoperations

**ARITHMETIC LOGIC SHIFT UNIT
**

S3 S2 S1 S0 Ci

Arithmetic D i Circuit

Ci+1 Ei shr shl

Select 0 1 2 3

4x1 MUX

Fi

Bi Ai Ai-1 Ai+1

Logic Circuit

S3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

S2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1

S1 S0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 X X X X

Cin 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 X X X X X X

Operation F=A F=A+1 F=A+B F=A+B+1 F = A + B’ F = A + B’+ 1 F=A-1 F=A F = A ∧B F = A ∨B F=A⊕ B F = A’ F = shr A F = shl A

Function Transfer A Increment A Addition Add with carry Subtract with borrow Subtraction Decrement A TransferA AND OR XOR Complement A Shift right A into F Shift left A into F

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