Micro Electronic Era

Into the 1970's
• 1971-- The floppy disk is introduced. • 1972 -- Cray Research is founded.

• 1972 -- Pocket Calculator is introduced.

Microprocessors - 1971
• A microprocessor -- also known as a CPU or central processing unit -- is a complete computation engine that is fabricated on a single chip. • The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004, introduced in 1971. • The 4004 was not very powerful -- all it could do was add and subtract, and it could only do that 4 bits at a time. But it was amazing that everything was on one chip.

Microprocessors
• The first microprocessor to make a real splash in the market was the Intel 8088, introduced in 1979 and incorporated into the IBM PC (which first appeared around 1982).

Microprocessors
• If you are familiar with the PC market and its history, you know that the PC market moved from the 8088 to the 80286 to the 80386 to the 80486 to the Pentium to the Pentium II to the Pentium III to the Pentium 4. • All of these microprocessors are made by Intel and all of them are improvements on the basic design of the 8808.

Processing Chips Become Faster

Birth of Personal computers - 1971
• Kenbak I - 1971
– Very primitive, just flashing lights and buttons – about $750

• MITS Altair - 1975 (pictured)
– 256 byte memory – 2 MHz Intel 8080 chips – Just a box with flashing lights – cost $395 kit, $495 assembled.

Altair - the Microcomputer
• MITS - Altair • Uses the Intel 8080 • Cover of Popular Electronics
– Jan. 1975

• MITS hires Allen (and Gates)

Apple computers – 1977
• • • • Founded 1977 Apple II released 1977 widely used in schools Macintosh (left) - released in 1984, Motorola 68000 Microchip processor Macintosh is first commercial computer with graphical user interface (GUI) and pointing device (mouse)

Apple
• • • • • Steve Wozniak (the Woz) Steven Jobs Homebrew Computer Club Apple I - MOS 6502 chip 1976 Mike Markkula bought in
– Apple Founded

• 1977 the Apple II • 1984 the Macintosh

Personal computers – IBM PC 1981
• IBM-Intel-Microsoft joint venture • First wide-selling personal computer used in business • 8088 Microchip - 29,000 transistors • 4.77 Mhz processing speed • 256 K RAM (Random Access Memory) standard • One or two floppy disk drives

IBM PC
• Built on the Intel 8088 • Operating System from Microsoft (and
others)

• Put together with existing components • Open to cards and software • Released in 1981 An IBM Clone

Early Laptops

Modern Personal Computers

Computers Today Include more than PCs.

PDAs

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