Building Services 1

Week 13: Class 27 and 28


Water supply & Sanitation: Chapter 12

M.Feroze Ahmed and Md. Mujibur rahman. ITN- Bangladesh, BUET.

Sanitation may be defined as the science and practice of effecting healthful and hygienic conditions and involve the study and use of all sorts of hygienic measures.
The word sanitation actually refers to all conditions that affect health.

Sanitation also contributes greatly to preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

Sanitation Systems
Sanitation system with respect to human waste management involves following functions.
01. Excretion and storage. 02. Collection and transportation

03. Process/ treatment and
04. Disposal/recycle

03. Off. Basing on the location of storage treatment and disposal sanitation system is classified as 01. Wet system. Confined system . On-site sanitation and 02.Classification of Sanitation Systems 1. 02. Dry system and 02. Permeable system and sanitation. Depending on whether the system allows infiltration or not. Basing on the methods of collection and conveyance of wastes sanitation system is classified as 01. sanitation system is classified as 01.

g.Classification of Sanitation Systems On-site Systems: When wastes are collected. the system is called off-site system.g. e. it is called an on-site system. Bucket latrine (offsite). Wet systems: When wastes are transported away using water as conveying media and water is used for dilution then it is termed as wet system. Permeable Systems: The system which allows infiltration of liquid portion of wastes into the ground. septic tank system (on-site) and conventional sewer system (off-site). e. Off-site systems: When wastes are colleted and transported away from the point of generation for treatment and disposal. Pit latrine Confined systems: The system which does not allow infiltration. Dry Systems: When no water is required for dilution or conveyance of waste then it is termed as dry system. e. conventional sewerage system. . Pit latrine (on-site).g. treated and disposed off at or close to the point of generation. Examples include: bucket latrine system.g. Examples include: pit latrines and septic tank system. septic tank. e.

HYGIENIC LATRINE • • A “hygienic latrine” is defined as a sanitation facility the use of which effectively breaks the cycle of disease transmission. Confinement of feces. 2. Faecal-Oral Routes of Transmission of Diseases WATER FAECES (focus of infections) SOIL FLIES FINGERS FOOD MOUTH . Sealing of the passage between the squat hole and the pit to effectively block the pathways for flies and other insect vectors thereby breaking the cycle of disease transmission. and 3. Venting out of foul gases generated in the pit through a properly positioned vent pipe to keep the latrine odor free and encourage continual use of the hygienic latrine. A hygienic latrine would mean to include all of the following: 1.

LOW-COST SANITATION TECHNOLOGIES for RURAL AREAS Major technological options are: – Pit Latrines. The major types of pit latrines include: • Simple or “Home-made” Pit Latrines • Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) Latrine • Reed Odourless Earth Closet (ROEC) . conventional pit latrines could be improved to be hygienic. • All forms of pit latrines are not fully sanitary. – Pour Flush Latrines. Urine and other liquids soak into the ground and solid materials are retained and decomposed in the pit. With slight modifications in design and with some interventions. Pit Latrines: • A pit is simply a hole in the ground into which excreta falls.

though not fully sanitary is sometimes promoted to discourage open defecation Pit Earth Accumulated solids Infiltration of liquid .SIMPLE OR HOME-MADE PIT LATRINES • The simplest “home-made” latrine is built by digging a small hole and placing a bamboo platform on it • One can use a concrete squatting slab and a ring for an improved version Super structure Squatting Slab Cover Compacted earth Ground level • This option.

TYPES OF PIT LATRINES Fly screen min. 300 mm Vent pipe Slab with squat hole Superstruc ture Pit lining Pit Water Sealed Trap Earth Pit Accumulated solids Accumulated solids Solids accumulati on ul Liquid infiltration Direct Pit Partially Offset Pit Offset Pit Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) Latrine .

03. mosquito. 04. may or may not include water seal with the pan. A VIP latrine is an improvement over the simple pit latrine. Partially offset pit latrines: Relatively stable. Direct pit latrines: Some risk in the stability of the superstructure particularly when the soil underneath is loose and when the pit is submerged during the wet season.TYPES OF PIT LATRINES 01. and unpleasant odors. which keep the latrine free from flies. . 02. The most important design variation in VIP latrine is the inclusion of the vent pipe and the fly-screen. Offset pit latrines: Most stable and safest of the simple pit latrine options.

Fly screen Air Vent pipe Air Concrete cover Seat Chute Accumulated solids Liquid Infiltration .Reed Odorless Earth Closet (ROEC) Latrine • ROEC. thereby providing a site for mosquito breeding and odor nuisance and making maintenance difficult. the pit is fully offset and is connected to the squatting plate by a curved chute. pit can be easily emptied.. structurally more stable and aesthetically more acceptable • Disadvantages: The chute easily becomes fouled with excreta. is a variation of VIP latrine • In ROEC.e. commonly used in southern Africa. • Advantages: The offset pit can be made larger (i. longer life).

plastics. In case of ROEC.5 m below the slab. rags etc. • Ash or sawdust can be sprinkled occasionally in the pit to reduce smell and insect breeding. or – emptying the existing pit. rather the door of superstructure should be kept closed for keeping inside dark. Emptying of Pits When the contents of the pit reach the level of 0. • A tight fitting lid should be placed on the squatting hole after every use to ensure insect and odor control. Manual Emptying: involves serious health hazard.Operation & Maintenance of Pit Latrines Regular cleaning of the squatting slab with some water and a little disinfectant if available. the chute has to be cleaned regularly. there are two options: – construction of a new pit on an adjacent site. glass. the squat hole should never be covered to ensure continuous airflow. Mechanical Emptying: easier if the pit contents are wet. • Some water should always be available in or near the latrine for cleansing. . • Non-biodegradable material like stones. should not be thrown into the pit as they reduce the effective volume of the pit. But in case of VIP latrines.

(1) Direct Pit Pour Flush Latrine . which prevents unpleasant odor and insects from entering the latrine compartment • An important precondition for such latrine is availability of some water (about 3 to 5 liters) for cleansing and flushing.POUR FLUSH Latrine • Further improvement over simple pit latrine • The most vital part is the “water seal” incorporated between the squatting plate and the pit.

Types of POUR FLUSH Latrine (1) Direct Pit Pour Flush Latrine (2) Offset Pit Pour Flush Latrine (3) Alternating Twin Offset Pit Pour Flush Latrine (2) Offset Pit Pour Flush Latrine .

Types of POUR FLUSH Latrine (3) Alternating Twin Offset Pit Pour Flush Latrine .

• When the pit is full. . the pipe layout and the first pit can be so placed so as to allow for the installation of a second pit when the first becomes full. and the squatting slab can be placed over the new pit. • In rural areas mechanical desludging is neither reliable nor affordable. Twin-pits are recommended if the pits are to be desludged manually.Suitability of Pour Flush Latrines • Pour-flush latrines may be used in both rural and urban areas. since their contents are not pathogen free. pits should be designed for manual desludging. • Alternating twin offset pit pour-flush latrines offer a much better solution if they can be afforded. • Single pits may be appropriate in urban areas only if they can be desludged mechanically. Consequently. If twin-pits cannot be afforded during the initial construction. • The filled-up pit can be covered with some soil and left for a sufficient period of time before it can be emptied again for reuse. a new pit can be dug and the superstructure.

and • that pour flush system may be upgraded to a septic tank system with a soakaway or connected to a small bore sewerage system where available.Measures to be taken for Pour Flush Latrines The users shall take following measures for good performance of such latrine: • the water seal must be maintained at all times in order to effectively control odour and insects. . • flow must be diverted to the second pit when the first pit is full. • the pit when full must be kept covered for at least one and a half year for risk free manual emptying.

insect and fly breeding Safe for children Can be located.Advantages of Pour Flush Latrines • • • • • • • • • Less expensive compared to conventional latrines (with sewerage systems) Offer appropriate and hygienic solution for excreta disposal Require low volumes of water for flushing. inside the house Potential for resource recovery using the sludge as soil conditioner Easy construction and maintenance of single pit pour-flush latrine . if desired. (2-3 litres/flush only) Can be upgraded to connect to a sewer system or septic tank system Eliminate odour.

• Single pits have to be abandoned and covered with 0. Important maintenance aspects include the followings: • Squatting pan and the trap have to be checked regularly for cracks. and the flow diverted to the empty pit. the diversion box should be checked for blockage and cleaned if necessary. The floor and the squatting pan should be cleaned daily. No solid material that could obstruct the trap should be thrown into the pan.Operation & Maintenance Important operational aspects include the followings: • • • • After each use.5 m soil when full. • If one pit is full. • In twin pit system. or emptied by mechanical means. • In case of twin leach pits. . the user should regularly monitor the level of contents of the pit. the pan is flushed with a few litres of water. Wastewater from bathing and washings should not be drained into the pit. the other pit has to be emptied and made ready for use. • The pipe leading to the full pit must be sealed within the diversion box.

Such areas include: • Dry Areas • High Groundwater Table Areas.PIT LATRINES FOR AREAS OF DIFFERENT HYDROGEOLOGIC CONDITIONS • There are areas where modifications of usual design of different types of pit latrines is needed to make them appropriate. the least costly solution can be simple pit latrines with or without water seal. Here chance of groundwater pollution is minimum • Single-ring or Multiple-ring pit latrines can be used in dry areas . and • Wet or Flood-prone Areas DRY AREAS • In dry areas (depth of WT 7 m or more).

• When multiple rings are used. gaps are provided between rings (with brick blocks). but this may cause stability problem • Perforated rings or honeycomb brick walls are most appropriate for better infiltration of liquid .

while part remains above ground The portion above the ground must be made impervious above and immediately below the ground in order to avoid ingression of surface water or exfiltration of pit liquid Pit liquid infiltration is achieved through the lower part of the pit below ground level Two types: Step latrine and Mound latrine. a possible solution is building raised pits. part of the pit remains below ground level. Such latrines are also suitable for areas where deep excavations are not possible due to hard rock bed near ground surface . where deep excavations are not possible.HIGH WATER TABLE AREAS • In water table areas.

.WET AND FLOOD-PRONE AREAS • A major challenge • Where surface or groundwater needs to be protected from pollution. has the disadvantage of filling up of the pit too soon. pits can be enveloped with 500 mm fine sand • One method of sanitation in swamps is to lower concrete rings below the bottom of the water body.

Class Test: 04 13 th Week. 23. Draw and show details of a inlet of rainwater down pipe.08.11. 4 03. What are the catchment areas in a building from where we can collect rainwater. 2 02. Marks-10 01. 4 Results of Assignment: . What are the technolgies that are adopted for using rainwater for various purposes. Time 30 min.

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