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EFFECTS OF VARIATION OF COLUMN HEIGHT AND PACKINGS IN THE LABORATORY FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF LOCAL GIN (OGOGORO

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PROJECT PRESENTATION BY ONUOHA IHEABUNIKE AUSTIN 09CF09387 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

APRIL 03, 2014.

OBJECTIVES: • Studying the effect of column height on the purity of the product. • Achieving further separation of the formed azeotrope with the introduction of calcium .AIM: To demonstrate that purer samples with higher percentages of ethanol can be obtained through fractional distillation of local gin and drying with CaO. • Studying the effect of packing material on the purity of the product. • Studying the effect of number of packings on the purity of the product.

JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY • The demand for purer forms of ethanol. • Boost our local industries. • Discourage the unwholesome consumption of ogogoro. • Foreign exchange. . • Employment opportunities.

LITERATURE REVIEW • Ethanol (C2H5OH) . • Fractional distillation based on boiling points. • The azeotrope formed after the fractional distillation of the ethanol .water mixture can be further purified via drying.37oC. . • Calcium oxide – drying agent.78.

METHODOLOGY • VARIATION OF PACKING MATERIAL AND COLUMN HEIGHT .

2 70.2 70.METHODOLOGY (CONTINUED) • VARIATION OF NUMBER OF PACKINGS USING CONSTANT Copper is packing material HEIGHT Number of packings 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Height column (cm) 70.2 70.2 70.2 .2 70.2 70.

4g. 6g. 8g and 10g of CaO were used to treat ethanol samples for 4 hours. DRYING FILTRATION DISTILLATION .METHODOLOGY (CONTINUED) • 2g.

.5 Height of distillation column (cm) Figure 1.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Concentration (in wt%) 95 90 85 No Packing (Empty column) Glass Plastic Copper 80 75 70 28 33.2 61.3 42.3 70.2 103.1: Effects of the variation of column height and packing type on purity of ethanol-water mixture.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION (CONTINUED) Concentration (in wt%) 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Number of packings Figure 1.2: Effects of variation of number of packings on the purity of ethanol-water mixture. .

55 97.9 97.65 97.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION (CONTINUED) Final cocnetration of ethanol (in wt%) 97.45 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Mass of CaO (g) Figure 1.75 97.5 97.8 97.7 97.3: Effects of different masses of CaO on the purity of ethanol-water mixture. .6 97.85 97.

the best material between the three is glass. • Although random copper chips yielded better results than random glass chips and plastic beads. • Drying by using calcium oxide requires small . • Smaller piece sizes of random packings increase the efficiency of fractional distillation. • Surface area is a very important factor that can affect the efficiency of fractional distillation.• CONCLUSION • The efficiency of fractional distillation can be increased by increasing the height of the fractionation column and the number of packings. as corrosion can degrade the copper in the long run.

RECOMMENDATIONS • Other drying agents • Structured packings • Size variation • Time • Barring constant energy supply. .

•Thanks for listening. .