You are on page 1of 18

PAPR Reduction Technique

Using PTS Scheme in OFDM
Presented By
Loknadh Ch
Y11MTEC804
RVR&JC
Contents
INTRODUCTION TO OFDM
1
IMPORTANCE OF PAPR
Space Frequency Block Coding
CONCLUSION
2
4
5
PAPR Reduction Techniques
3
Introduction
OFDM is a powerful modulation technique being used in
many new and emerging broadband communication
systems.

OFDM is a multi channel modulation system employing
FDM of orthogonal sub carriers.

OFDM is a combination of Modulation and Multiplexing.

OFDM has developed into a popular scheme for wide
band digital communications.
Cont…

 Advantages:
 Robustness against frequency selective fading and
time dispersion.
 Transmission rates close to capacity can be
achieved.
 Low computational complexity implementation
(FFT).

 Drawbacks:
 Sensitivity to frequency offset and Phase Noise.
 High PAPR
 Synchronization Problems
Peak-to-Average Ratio of OFDM Signals
An OFDM signal consists of a number of
independently modulated subcarriers, which can
give a large peak-to-average power ratio.

High peak-to-average power ratio
 Problem 1. It increased complexity of the analog-
to-digital and digital-to-analog converters
 Problem 2. It reduced efficiency of the RF power
amplifier

The PAPR reduces the efficiency in the sense that
a higher input back off factor is needed before the
peaks in the signal experience significant distortion
due to power amplifier nonlinearity.
6
Peak-to-Average Ratio of OFDM Signals
N k N n
N
k
N
kn j
e k X
N
n x < s < s ¿
÷
=
= 0 , 0 ;
1
0
2
) (
1
) (
t
Summation of Orthogonal carriers can result in large peak values
and low average values.
OFDM Signal is generated using IDFT equation :
2
2
2
) ( max
;
) ( max
x
n
x
n
n x
PAPR
n x
CF
o
o
= =
Data
IDFT Size
This variation is referred to as Peak-to-Average Ratio of OFDM signal
and is most commonly characterized as Peak-to-Average Power Ratio
(PAPR) and Peak Envelope Ratio (PER) or Crest Factor (CF).

7
The effect of High PAPR
High PAPR implies that the peak values of the signal is
greater than the RMS value.
The Frequency of peak occurrence is low.
Due to the large number of sub-carriers in typical OFDM
systems, the amplitude of the transmitted signal has a
large dynamic range, leading to in-band distortion and
out-of-band radiation.

In AM Systems:
DAC/Power Amplifier with larger dynamic range
Increased Power consumption, component cost.
In FM Systems:
Less Average Deviation
Low SNR at the FM receiver

Considerations on PAPR reduction
In order to improve the system performance, PAPR
should predict the amount of distortion introduced by the
nonlinearity

PAPR increases with the number of subcarriers in the
OFDM signal.
The distortion term and the uniform attenuation and
rotation of the constellation only depend on the back-off.
The effect of a nonlinearity to an OFDM signal is not
clearly related to its PAPR
There will only be a BER performance improvement
when the effect of reducing the in-band distortion
becomes noticeable and more important than the loss of
power efficiency.
9
PAPR Reduction Techniques
Clipping/filtering

Coding
 Partial Transmit Sequence
 Selected Mapping (SLM)

Probabilistic
 Tone Reservation (TR)
 Tone Injection (TI)
 Active Constellation Extension (ACE)
 Error Insertion (EI)

PAPR reduction at the expense of: complexity↑,
average power↑, BER↑, and data rate↓
Performance of the PAPR-reduced signals
 In ACE, at each OFDM block, some of the outer signal constellation
points are extended towards outside of the constellation such that
the PAPR of the resulting block is reduced
Active Constellation Extension (ACE)
 Advantages:
× Drawbacks:
It is transparent to receiver.
There is no loss of data rate.
No side information is
required.
The increase in the average energy per bit might be higher than
the NL distortion reduction.
The larger the constellation size is the lower the number of
extensible points will be.
Performance of the PAPR-reduced signals
 TR consists on reducing the PAPR by reserving a few tones (PRT)
within the transmitted bandwidth and assign them the appropriate
values
Tone Reservation (TR)
 Advantages:
× Drawbacks:
No distortion is introduced to the data bearing tones
No side information is required.
Increase in the average energy per bit which might reduce the
BER performance improvement.
Loss of spectral efficiency due to tone reservation
Performance of the PAPR-reduced signals
 In SLM, from the original data block several candidate data blocks are
generated and the one with lowest PAPR is transmitted.
 At the receiver the reverse operation is performed to recover the original
data block.
Selected Mapping (SLM)
 Advantage: No distortion is introduced
× Drawback: It requires transmitting bits of side information per OFDM
symbol
 It is crucial that the side information is received without errors.
 The side information has to be heavily protected.
 SLM has a complexity of U IFFT operations and U complex vector
multiplications.
 The amount of PAPR reduction depends on U and the design of the phase
Sequences.
2
log U
(
(
(
Performance of the PAPR-reduced signals
 The original data block is partitioned into V disjoint sub blocks. The
subcarriers in each sub block are rotated by the same phase factor such
the PAPR of the combination is minimized.
 At the receiver the reverse operation is performed to recover the original
data block.
Partial Transmit Sequences (PTS)
 Advantage: No distortion is introduced
× Drawback: It requires transmitting bits of side information per OFDM symbol.
» It is crucial that the side information is received without errors.
» The side information has to be heavily protected.
1
2
log
V
W
÷ (
(
(
 PTS has a complexity of V IFFT operations, complex vector multiplications
and complex vector sums..
( )
1
1
V
V W
÷
÷
( )
1
1
V
V W
÷
÷
Space Frequency Block Code
A number of approaches have been proposed for
the OFDM PAPR Problem

SFBC is a simple and powerful technique for
OFDM PAPR Problem

Advantages:
 To reduce the PAPR of SFBC MIMO-OFDM
signals, Which could provide good PAPR
reduction with low computational complexity.
 The improved AMS method without side
information for 4-QAM and 16-QAM
modulations.
14
BLOCK DIAGRAM
16
Any Questions