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G-TOLERANCE IMPROVEMENT Aerospace Physiologist PROGRAM

MSC Symposium LT Yniguez MCAS, Cherry PT


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understand your personal type of light loss learn when to utilize the anti-G „hook‟ understand daily variations in relaxed Gtolerance respect the 6 sec “buffer period” appreciate the potential “GLOC trap” understand the one-sided light loss that may occur in the check-six position

GTIP Goals and Enabling Objectives

Terminal Objective G-TIP
Be familiar with Gz acceleration forces, the causes and symptoms of (G-LOC), and the methods to improve G-tolerance.

G-LOC A DEADLY THREAT
AIRCRAFT FA-18 F-14 AV-8B EA-6B S-3 T-2 T-34 NO. 8 1 1 3 1 3 35 G‟s 5.5-8.0 4.0 5.5 3.0-4.0 3.0 3.5 1.5-9.0

Why pull Gs? it‟s fun  it builds character  so you can kill the other guy  so you don‟t get killed  actually only pull Gs to change direction  .

Anatomical/Physiological effects of G-Forces Cardiovascular  Respiratory  Sensory  Cerebral  .

Cardiovascular Effects of +Gz: BP above the heart  BP below the heart  blood pooling lower extremities  CO and BV  10 sec delay in reflex  Petechial hemorrhages  .

trapping it in your chest – the “hook” closes your glottis so you can strain against it – the deep breath and strain raises pressure in the chest to squeeze blood up to your head .Cardiovascular system    your BP forces blood up to your brain high Gs force the blood down away from your head „Hook‟ maneuver is designed to raise the BP and keep blood flowing up to your brain – the muscle strain keeps blood from pooling in your legs or arms.

OPTIONAL: gradually increase Gs without straining until you see some light loss determines your relaxed G-tolerance consider it might be a low-G day .G-warm up maneuver. or G-awareness turn 1. pull about _ Gs for at least 10 sec no strain 3. press-to-test G-suit 2.

and – your pulse increases – blood vessels throughout your body tighten up  this raises your BP and increases your relaxed G-tolerance .The Cardiovascular Reflex. or “Why do I do the G-warm up maneuver?”   the carotid bodies in your neck sense a change in BP and initiate the cardiovascular reflex to maintain blood flow to your head with increased Gs you see lower BP in your neck.

G-warm-up maneuver .   gives you about 3/4 G additional relaxed Gtolerance protection but it takes 10-15 seconds to occur – might notice more light loss on first pull of the day  and lasts only about 10-15 minutes – so might consider doing G-warm-up close to the time that you‟ll be needing the extra help ...

or level inverted flight – BP rises in your head and your carotid bodies compensate by:   slowing your pulse.Push-Pull Effect  with sustained negative Gs  push over. and dilating your blood vessels – this lowers your BP in about 10-15 sec   but normally + Gs come on just as your BP is falling and you can GLOC at 3Gs! So avoid +Gs after sustained -Gs – won‟t occur unless -Gs last over 3-4 sec. .

looks worse the next day. sustained Gs  worse when you haven‟t flown for awhile  like a bruise. but fades out in 3 .Petechia polka-dot bruises in dependent areas where there is no counter-pressure  caused by high.5 days  are not contagious!  .

Respiratory Effects Atelectasis Hard to inhale .

unlike air.this re-inflates the air cells and relieves the unpleasant feeling . is absorbed from your lungs so quickly that the air cells actually collapse and stick closed   worse after sustained Gs the cough is the cure -. chest tightness and feel short of breath after breathing 100% oxygen – release one side of oxygen mask Atelectasis   makes you cough but is not because the oxygen is “dry” – oxygen.

another reason not to work any harder than you have to! .Hard to inhale      may feel like you can‟t get enough air in due to physical forces compressing your chest – breathing is usually rather easy -.this isn‟t you just have to work at it hypoxia may contribute to decrease in performance. or increased likelihood of GLOC or ALOC be efficient -.

Visual effects of +Gz: in retinal circulation  in retinal perfusion  grayout or blackout  visual field  .

combination/variations over time. “dimmer switch effect” 3. tunnel vision ==> in-from-the-sides 2. curtain 5. .Vision Loss 1. Vision loss may be asymmetric. splotches 4.

normally inadvertently tilt our head a little. so one eye becomes higher than other  top eye loses light before lower eye  but we tend to “use the good eye” and ignore the light loss  the light loss in the top eye is the GLOC warning!  .One sided light loss when check-6.

you think that the plane experienced an uncommanded pitch-up  watch out during a sustained turn  don‟t go by your instruments!  .G-Excess Illusion head tilt during a turn is misunderstood by the body. which thinks your head has tilted more than it really has  but since you know where your head is.

Cerebral effects of +Gz: cerebral perfusion  cerebrospinal fluid pressure  .

then simply shuts down! – probably a self-protective mechanism  answer to today‟s quiz question is: 6 sec .Buffer Period  your brain functions normally without any blood flow for about 6 seconds.

Stohl curve .

GLOC Trap get in habit of waiting for light loss before we start to strain  but may have no light loss warning before GLOC above 6 Gs  .

Neurological Effects    Cognitive changes -. some ALOC ALOC -.G induced loss of consciousness – LOC is all-or-none. but – G effects are a continuum .“Almost GLOC” – impairment but not LOC – typical “almost lost it” scenario GLOC -.error making – some fatigue related.

A Continuum fully conscious light loss blackout cognitive impairment = ALOC unconscious = GLOC .GLOC -.

plane goes to 1G – flailing is common  blood flow returns in watershed pattern .More about GLOC G-induced loss of consciousness 1.out cold – varies 1-18 sec. mean 12 sec  typical in-flight GLOC is short: 1-6 sec  as pilot lets go of the stick. Absolute Incapacitation Period – classic LOC -.

but  incapable of thinking or responding  – terminates abruptly with reintegration of mental functions and return to near normal capabilities – may lose SA . looks OK. Relative Incapacitation Period – 1-24 sec additional – lights are on. but no one is home subject is upright.2.

.If you GLOC you may .. have some tingling or numbness  have some twitching or jerking  have a pleasant dream  not realize that you GLOCed!  be a little confused or disoriented  be aware that you have lost your hearing  feel a little “off” the rest of the day  .

we must understand the terms: – Relaxed G-tolerance – Endurance G-tolerance – Straining G-tolerance .Does Physical Training help G-tolerance? before we can answer.

 relates to heart-to-eye distance  – body shape – seat-back angle .Relaxed G-Tolerance the G level at which you have significant light loss without doing a straining maneuver.

Relaxed G-Tolerance  varies – from person to person – from day to day same for women and men  4 to 6 Gs for most people  obviously different with or without an anti-G suit  does not relate to physical training  .

your relaxed G tolerance is increased by  tilt-back seat – lowers shortens heart-to-eye distance – less than 1G improvement seen in F-16 anti-G suit – onset delayed until after the Gs come on  recent G exposure -the “training effect”  .

your relaxed G-tolerance is decreased by: fatigue  alcohol  dehydration  illness  medication  layoff from G exposure  .

and is improved by working out  physical training improves your ability to repeatedly strain without wearing out  .Straining G-tolerance the highest G-level you can stand when doing your best straining maneuver  but is hard to measure and study  does relate to physical strength.

Endurance G-tolerance the time you can keep straining against varying G levels until you are exhausted  hard to measure. hence hard to use reliably in research  improved by both aerobic and anaerobic training!  .

probably not true  aerobic training actually improves your “staying power” by allowing rapid recovery from the straining  – avoid extreme training -.Aerobic Training was once thought to decrease your relaxed G-tolerance.keep your resting heart rate above 45 .

So. and on frequent flights .. does not affect your relaxed G-tolerance  does improve your strength and endurance G-tolerance  – pays off on long. difficult engagements. Physical Training ..

repeated straining with rapid recovery include aerobic training  my personal view is that you are better served by understanding Gs. and doing what you have to effectively and efficiently  . train the muscles you strain – your goal is sustained.Physical Training  So.

include neck strength training in your weight workout! .Neck Strength neck pain is #1 cause of down time for high-G aviators movement under Gs helmet. NVGs. Great Benefits come with neck strength better control (don‟t want to kiss your belly button!) less likely to be injured so. etc. mask.

Neck Pain/Injury leading cause of down time for high-G aviators  associated with high rate of G onset (“snatching on the Gs”)   non-pilot can‟t anticipate G onset head movement under Gs additional head mounted equipment  good neck strength training minimizes injury potential  .

“Where’d my G-tolerance go?”   Training Effect – G-tolerance increases when you fly Gs Layoff Effect – and drops off again when you don‟t .The “Det Effect” or.

but “G-time”  can increase up to 2 Gs within a week – say usual relaxed G-tolerance is 5.Training Effect  relaxed G-tolerance will increase all by itself with frequent exposure to Gs – it‟s not flight time. G-suit makes it 6.  You get used to not having to strain . So training effect can push it up to 8! You don‟t ever have to strain.

Engineering changes to improve G tolerance  tilt back seat (30 deg tilt) – gives < 1 G additional relaxed tolerance – standard seat is 13 deg.esp before high Gs – gives a 1G increase in relaxed G-tolerance . this raises your head and lets you see out better  anti-G suit – always lags the G onset  start your muscle strain before the Gs come on -.

. though... .Navy Combat Edge positive pressure breathing with chest jerkin and Eagle anti-G suit  can sustain 8 Gs without straining!  can keep talking and breathing throughout high Gs  so increases your endurance too  – less straining – better breathing  high Gs still suck.

then slack off after the G-suit fills fit should be snug.. not tight  too loose just takes longer to fill up  – while standing. should easily slip:  two fingers down by the thigh and calf.    G-suit helps you by doing some of the work strain first.Proper G suit fit .. fall) . and  open hand down the front release G-suit when you need to (spring.

AGSM M-1 classic grunt  L-1 glottis closed completely  “Hook” maneuver  I say it‟s OK to use your own combination of leg strain/abdominal strain/hook maneuver as you need to. but no more – understand what to do and why – know and respect the traps! .  – Do what you have to do.

deep breath.Hook maneuver 1. rapidly exchange full lung of air it‟s hard to inhale under high Gs 5. work only as hard as you have to . while maintaining continuous muscle strain. tighten all muscles before G onset “Get a Jump on the Gs!” above 6 2. close glottis (say “hook”) 3. bear down and strain for 3 seconds strain harder for higher Gs. slack off at lower Gs 4.