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Describe the structure of the pancreas
Outline the role of the pancreas as an endocrine and exocrine gland

Explain how blood glucose concentration is regulated with reference to insulin, glucagon and the liver

The Liver .

it secretes hormones into a tube .e.e. it secretes hormones DIRECTLY into the blood Exocrine means a gland with a duct – i.What does endocrine and exocrine mean? Endocrine means a gland without a duct – i.

an endocrine and exocrine gland  Exocrine function secretes digestive enzymes into the pancreatic duct  Endocrine function secretes hormones (insulin and glucagon) directly into the blood .The pancreas.

Secretion of enzymes (exocrine function)  Pancreatic cells surround small tubules which drain into the pancreatic duct Pancreatic cells produce pancreatic juice which is made up of.     Amylase (a carbohydrase) Trypsinogen (an inactive protease) Lipase  Sodium hydrogencarbonate .

Questions….. Why is an inactive protease released? How is it activated? Why is sodium hydrogen carbonate released? .

Secretion of hormones (endocrine function) Hormones are secreted from the cells in the islets of Langerhans α (alpha)cells produce and secrete the hormone glucagon βcells produce and secrete the hormone insulin These are released directly into the blood     .


nucleus rough endoplasmic reticulum cell membrane beta cell secretory vesicle alpha cell secretory vesicle mitochondrian x 30000 .


then the changes are detected by the α and β cells in the islets of Langerhans .Control of blood glucose  Is a negative feedback process The normal blood glucose level is 90mg per 100ml of blood   If the blood glucose levels get too high or too low.

Card sort activity .

Glucose ( monosaccharide) Glucagon (hormone that increases blood glucose levels) Glycogen (storage molecule of glucose) Glycogenesis (glycogen synthesis) Gluconeogenesis (conversion of amino acids and fats into glucose Glycogenolysis (glycogen converted to glucose .


Binds to receptors on liver and muscle cells. Insulin released into the blood. Enzymes are stimulated to convert glucose into glycogen Glucose is converted into triglycerides.Blood Sugar level Rises Detected by B Cells of Islet of Langerhans in pancreas. Glucose transport proteins open and glucose enters the cells. Blood sugar level falls . Rate of respiration is increased.

2. cAMP acts as a second messenger and activates a series of reactions. Adenylate cyclase (enzyme) is activated which converts ATP to cAMP. Insulin binds to receptors in the muscle and liver.Control of blood glucose: A Second Messenger System 1. 3. .

If blood glucose levels rise… GLUT4 receptors/ glucose channels .youtube.

Glucagon released into the blood. Glycogenolysis: Glycogen broken down into soluble glucose.Blood Sugar level Falls Detected by A Cells of Islet of Langerhans in pancreas. Blood sugar level rises . Gluconeogenesis: Glycerol and amino acids are converted into glucose. Glucagon binds to receptors on liver cells only. Glucose enters the blood.

However when there is insufficient glucose in the blood the cells break down glycogen and release glucose into the blood therefore they need also must respond to glucagon. the cells absorb glucose and make more glycogentherefore they need to respond to insulin.Why do hepatocytes have specialised receptors for both insulin and glucagon?  Hepatocytes contain a store of glycogen. when there is excess glucose in the blood.  .

How is the ultrastructure of alpha and beta cells in the islets of Langerhans specialised to manafacture and secrete hormones? Will have many: -Ribosomes & RER for protein synthesis -Golgi apparatus (hormone prep and packaging into vesicles) -Secretory vesicles -mitochondria (ATP for active processes in the cell) .