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# Teaching Multiplication & Division

Centre for Excellence cluster of schools Combined staff meetings

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Multiplication & Division in the classroom
In groups/pairs discuss
– What does teaching Multiplication & Division look like in my classroom?

– What do I already know about how students learn to multiply and divide?
– Share
NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Counting and grouping
Coordinating

Grouping

Counting

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

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Terminology
• Composite units a set of items are treated spatially (visually) or numerically (abstractly) as a unit

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Thinking groups - not items

4
counting

groups of 3
grouping
3 3 3 3

4 threes
coordinating
NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Background notes
• Some students persist with counting by ones and have difficulty in progressing to grouping strategies • By focusing on groups, rather than individual items, students learn to treat the groups as composite units.

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

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Key concepts in Multiplication and Division

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Teaching Key concepts
• In our Explicit teaching part of the lesson how do we ensure deep understanding of the concept?

• How do we teach concepts?
• What are the key ideas?
NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Key concepts
What are the key concepts in multiplication & division?     Repeated addition Commutative property Associative property Inverse relationship mult/division

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

• Repeated addition - Multiplication is a fast way of adding a series of numbers 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 12 (Division – repeated subtraction)

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Concrete  Visual 

Abstract

3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 12 x 4 groups of 3 = 12

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Key concepts – Commutative Property
• Commutative Property of Multiplication - it doesn’t matter which number is first.
3 x 4 = 12 4 x 3 = 12

3x4=4x3

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Key –– Commutative Property Key concepts concepts Repeated addition
Concrete  Visual 

Abstract -

3x4=4x3 
www.det.nsw.edu.au

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way

Key concepts – Distributive Property
Distributive Property
2 x 14 = 2 x (10 + 4) = (2 x 10) + (2 x 4) = 20 + 8 = 28

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Key concepts – Distributive Property
Concrete  Visual 

Abstract 12 x 2 = 24
NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

12 2x

Key concepts – Distributive Property
Splitting the product into known parts. 8x7= 7 x 7 = 49 8 x 7 = 49 + 7 8 x 7 = 56

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Key concepts – Inverse relationships

3 x 4 = 12

12 ÷ 3 = 4

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Key concepts
    Repeated addition Commutative property Distributive property Inverse relationship mult/division

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Deep Understanding
• Students who understand how to coordinate composite units are able to make efficient use of known facts
What is the answer to 8 x 4? 8 x 4 is the same as 4 x 8 If 5 x 8 = 40 Then 4 x 8 must equal 32 What is the answer to 9 x 3? Double 9 is 18, 18 + 2 is 20 20 + 7 is 27

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

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Concrete /Manipulatives
• • • • • Counters Base 10 material Pencils Blocks Egg cartons

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Visuals
• Arrays • Numberline • 100 chart

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Visuals - Arrays
• Classroom tools – arrays

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Learning Object – The Array

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Learning object - Arrays: factor families

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Counting-On website

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au

Count Me In Too website

NSW Department of Education & Training
NSW Public Schools – Leading the Way www.det.nsw.edu.au