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READING
READING
 comprehend
 comprehend

comprehend

Nature of Reading

  • 1.Reading is a complex process

  • 2. Reading is a two-way process

  • 3. Reading is largely a visual process

  • 4. Reading is an active process.

  • 5. Reading makes use of a linguistic system which enables readers to be more effective users of written language.

  • 6. Effective reading is partly dependent on the reader’s prior knowledge or background experiences.

STAGES OF READING

STAGES OF READING DEVELOPMENT

DEVELOPMENT

Stage 0: Pre reading “Pseudo- reading”

  • Grade/Age Range :

  • Preschool ( ages 6 mos 6 years)

  • Major Qualitative Characteristics:

    • Pretending to read , retelling story

    • Naming letters of alphabet

    • Printing own name

    • Playing with books, pencils and papers

Stage 1: Initial Reading and

Decoding

Grade/Age Range: Grade I & Beginning Grade 2

( ages 7-8)

Qualitative Characteristics:

  • Learning relation between letters and sounds and between printed and spoken words.

  • able to read simple text containing high

Being

frequency words and phonically regular words.

  • Using skill and insight to sound out new one-syllable words.

How acquired:

  • Direct instruction in letter sound relations (phonics) and practice in their use

  • Reading of simple stories using words with phonic elements taught and words of high frequency.

  • Being read to on a level above what child can read independently to develop more advanced language patterns, knowledge of new words, and ideas.

Stage 2: Confirmation and Fluency

  • Grade /Age Range: Grades 2 & 3 (ages 7-8)

  • Qualitative Characteristics : Child’s read simple, familiar stories and selections with increasing fluency.

  • How acquired:

    • Direct instruction in advanced decoding skills

    • Wide reading of familiar, interesting materials which help promote fluent reading.

    • Being read to at levels above their own independent reading level to develop language ,vocabulary and concepts

Stage 3: Reading for Learning a

New

  • Grade/age Range: Grades 4-8 (ages 9-13)

  • Qualitative Characteristics

    • Reading is used to learn new ideas, gain new knowledge, to experience new feelings, to learn new attitudes

    • Reading generally from one viewpoint

How acquired:

  • Reading and study of textbooks, references that contain new ideas and values, unfamiliar vocabularies and syntax

  • Systematic study of words and reacting to the text through discussion, answering questions, writing ,etc.

  • Reading of increasingly more complex fiction, biography, nonfiction, and the like.

Stage 4: Multiple Viewpoints

Stage 5: Construction and

Reconstruction

STAGES IN LEARNING TO READ

1. Getting Ready to Read

2. Learning the Letters

3. Phonics and Word Recognition

4. Fluency and Text Comprehension

CAUSES OF READING DIFFICULTIES

  • 1. Cognitive factors

- overall cognitive ability or ability to learn

- memory -associative learning -attention

  • 2. Linguistic Factors

Articulation difficulties Phonological factor Rapid automatized naming Word finding problems Orthographic processing weaknesses

  • 3. Psychological Factors

Visual processing deficits Auditory processing deficits

4. Social-Emotional Factors

Learned helplessness Parental pressure

5. Physical Factors

  • Neurological Factors

  • Hearing Impairments

  • Vision Impairments

  • Physical Health

  • 6. Educational Factors

    • Inappropriate Materials

    • Poor pacing

    • Lack of Effective Instruction

    • Overuse of Skill and Drill

  • 7.Socio-Cultural and Economic Factors

    • Failure to provide for the social nature of learning

    • Failure to provide for cultural diversity in the classroom

    • Poverty

  • 8.Family Factors

    • Genetic marker for reading disability (dyslexia)

    • Poor home literacy environment

  • A simple Reading Program

    READING PROGRAM

    • 1. Purpose 2. Target 3. Assessment Tools in Reading 4. Name of the Reading Program

    INSTRUCTIONAL FRAMEWORK

    • 1. Identify the characteristics of the poor reader.

    • 2. Isolate the most pronounced difficulties.

    • 3. Identify the child’s strength

    • 4. Increase motivation.

    • 5. Increase opportunities for practice at the level in which the child succeeds.

    READING INTERESTS

    • PRIMARY CHILDREN

      • Fairy tales

      • Animal stories

      • Humorous stories

      • Adventure stories

      • Comics and how-to-do-it books

      • Boys show special interest in animal stories and girls like stories with child characters.

    INTERMEDIATE CHILDREN

    • Adventure stories, animal stories

    • Fantasies

    • Stories about family life, famous people (esp.children)

    • Sports, humor

    • Stories dealing with machines, personal problems, physical Science and Social Studies

    • Comics are popular this period.

    • Boys are more interested in real-life adventure and girls prefer fantasy stories and those dealing with school, home and professional problems.

    1.Program of Activities

    Grade Level

    Month

    Reading

    Expected

    Activities

    Output

    I-VI

    June - July

    Reading

    Assessed

    assessment

    reading

    abilities of

    pupils

    I

    August-

    Emphasize phonemic awareness among pupils

    Read and comprehended stories intended for the

    September

    Reading words

    Grade

    October

    using CVC pattern Reading words and sentences using CVC /CCVC pattern

    November-December

    Reading simple

    January March

    sentences with comprehension Reading sentences, Paragraph and short stories with comprehension

    II

    August

    Word Recognition Skills ( context clues, sight words and phonics for the grade)

    Read and comprehend stories intended for the Grade

    September

    Reading simple /

    October-December

    short stories for the grade. Use reading skills to give meaning to

    words found in

    January March

    sentences and paragraph Reading the stories for the

     

    grade with

    comprehension

    III

    August

    Word Recognition Skills

    Read and comprehended

    ( context clues, sight words,

    stories intended for the Grade

    consonant blends and

    September- October

    phonics for the grade) Read and unlock words

    in the sentences. Read short stories for

    the grade with

    comprehension.

    November- December

    Reading stories, poems

    January- March

    with comprehension Reading the selections in the grade with comprehension

    IV

    August

    Word Recognition Skills

    Read selections and used

    ( sight words, context clues,

    higher level of

    phonics, structural analysis)

    comprehension

    comprehension

    Read stories with

    September- December

    comprehension within the grade. Reading grade level

    stories and answering

    January March

    questions from the low level to appreciative level. Reading selections with emphasis to higher level of comprehension

    V

    August

    Word Recognition Skills

    Read selections and used higher level of

    ( sight words, context clues, phonics, structural analysis)

    comprehension

    September

    Reading grade

    level stories and

    answering comprehension questions from the low level to

    appreciative level

    December January March

    Reading selections with emphasis to higher level of comprehension

    VI

    August

    Word Recognition Skills ( sight words, context clues, phonics, structural analysis)

    Read selections and used higher level of comprehension

    September December

    Reading grade level stories and answering comprehension questions from the low level to appreciative level

    January March

    Reading selections with emphasis to higher level of comprehension

    V.2. READING INTERVENTIONS FOR THE SLOW-PACED READERS

    AND NON-READERS

    Difficulty

    Objective

    Intervention

    Assessment

    Activities

    Slow paced learner in decoding

    Master the phonetic sounds and blending of such sounds.

    Teacher will help the children understand the sound structure of

    Individual reading of pupils.

    the second

    language at the phonetic level.

    Difficulty

    Objective

    Intervention

    Assessment

    Activities

       

    Teacher will conduct intensive and explicit work in sound/symbol associations, ranging from 25 minutes to 30 minutes a day

     

    Difficulty

    Objective

    Intervention

    Assessment

    Activities

       

    Teacher will expose the pupils to connected text with controlled vocabulary.

     

    Difficulty

    Objective

    Intervention

    Assessment

    Activities

    Reading with no comprehension

    Read to understand

    Teacher will model and explain the

     

    concepts

    story/selection

    Guided practice during which

    teachers ‘guide’

    pupils to assume

    responsibility for

    task completion

    Difficulty

    Objective

    Intervention

    Assessment

    Activities

       

    Teacher will

    Test the pupils

    allow the

    comprehension in

    pupils for independent practice accompanied by feedback

    oral and silent reading.

    “ “You May Have Tangible Wealth Untold Caskets of Jewels and Coffers of Gold Richer than
    “You May Have Tangible Wealth Untold
    Caskets of Jewels and Coffers of Gold
    Richer than I you can never be-
    I had a TEACHER who read to me
    ”.
    .
    .Strickland Gillillan
    .
    .
    • HAPPY

    WORKSHOP

    • 1. Design your school reading program which focuses on the slow-paced learners.

    • 2. Include feasible interventions for enriching reading skills (comprehension)

    • 3. Set your target.

    SCHOOL READING PROGRAM

    Common

    Objective

    Intervention

    Assessment

    Difficulty

    Activities

           

    Survey of the School Reading

    Profile

    • 1. Does your school implement Remedial Instruction on Reading?