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PERKEMBANGAN ARSITEKTUR KOMPUTER

Anggota
Ahmad Ataka A. R. Ahmad Raditya C. B. Aulia Recky Guntur Bagaskoro M. Ubeid Subhan Toni Trianto
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Komponen Komputer
Sejak 1940-an, komputer mempunyai beberapa Computer komponen: Processor Input devices Control Memory Output devices Datapath Storage devices
Devices Input

Output

Volatile memory devices: DRAM, SRAM, Permanent storage devices: Magnetic, Optical, and Flash disks,

Datapath Control Komponen keenam: Network

What is Computer Architecture?


Link I/O Chan
IR Regs

Technology

Interfaces

Machine Organizatio Applications Computer Architect

Measurement & Evaluation

API ISA

Apa itu Computer Architecture ?


Computer Architecture =

Instruction Set Architecture + Computer Organization


Instruction Set Architecture (ISA)
APA yang dilakukan komputer (logical view)

Computer Organization
BAGAIMANA ISA diimplementasikan (physical view)

Instruction Set Architecture (ISA)


Definisi oleh Amdahl, Blaaw, dan Brooks 1964
the attributes of a [computing] system as seen by the programmer, i.e. the conceptual structure and functional behavior, as distinct from the organization of the data flows and controls the logic design, and the physical implementation.

ISA mencangkup:
Instruksi dan Format Instruksi Type Data, Penyandian, dan Representasi Programmable Storage: Registers dan Memori Addressing Modes: Pengaksesan Instruksi dan Data Penanganan Kondisi Khusus

Instruction Set Architecture


ISA merupakan penghubung antara hardware dan software Contoh
Intel IBM Power HP PA-RISC MIPS Sun Sparc Digital Alpha PowerPC

(versi)

Diperkenalkan Tahun
1978 1985 1986 1986 1987 1992 1993

(8086, 80386, Pentium, ...) (Power 2, 3, 4, 5) (v1.1, v2.0) (MIPS I, II, III, IV, V) (v8, v9) (v1, v3) (601, 604, )

Instruction Set Architecture


Semua instruksi mempunyai lebar 32-bit Macam2 instruksi:
Load/Store Integer Arithmetic Jump dan Branch Floating Point Memory Management

Organisasi Komputer
Realisasi dari Instruction Set Architecture Beberapa komponennya:
Registers, ALU, FPU, Caches, ...

Cara komponen2 tersebut terhubung


Mengatur arus informasi antar komponen

Abstraction Layers
Software Compiler Assembler Linker Application Operating System Loader Scheduler Device Drivers

Instruction Set Architecture (Interface SW/HW)

Processor
Hardware

Memory
Digital Logic Design Circuit Design

I/O System

Datapath & Control Design

Physical (IC Layout) Design

Perubahan Teknologi Menimbulkan Perubahan Arsitektur


1970an
multi-chip CPUs Memori semikonduktor masih sangat mahal microcoded control Set instruksi kompleks

1990an (fast clocks)


Terdiri dari banyak transistor Kontrol yg kompleks untuk mengeluarkan instruksi

1980an
1 buah chip CPU, dimungkinkan dalam chip RAM simple, hard-wired control Set Instruksi yang lebih simpel Cache : chip kecil

2000an
Lebih banyak transistor Menggunakan teknologi yg lebih canggih

Intel 4004 - 1971


Microprocessor pertama 2,300 transistor 108 KHz

Intel Pentium IV - 2001


42 juta transistor 2GHz

Application Constraints
Applications drive machine balance
Numerical simulations floating-point performance main memory bandwidth Transaction processing I/Os per second integer CPU performance Decision support I/O bandwidth Embedded control I/O timing, power Media processing low-precision pixel arithmetic

Interface Design
A good interface
lasts through several generations of implementations IBM 360 and x86 ISAs, DOS APIs is simple - economy of mechanism

Interfaces are visible, Implementations generally arent 3 Types of Interfaces


Between Layers API, ISA Between Modules Network protocol (Ethernet), I/O channel or bus (SCSI or PCI) Standard Representations ASCII, IEEE floating-point

Instruction-Set Architecture
Hardware/Software Interface
Software impact
support OS functions restartable instructions memory relocation and protection a good compiler target simple orthogonal dense

OP

R1 R2 R3 imm

Hardware impact
admits efficient implementation across generations admits parallel implementation no serial bottlenecks

OP

M1 R1 M2 R2 im2 M3 R3 im2

...

Abstraction without interpretation

System-Level Organization
Design at the level of processors, memories, and interconnect. More important to application performance than CPU design Feeds and speeds
constrained by IC pin count, module pin count, and signaling rates

System balance
for a particular application

800MHz 4-way Issuex 16Bytes 200MHz


I/O

Driven by
performance/cost goals available components (cost/perf) technology constraints

SW

Display Net Disk

Microarchitecture
Implementasi dari instruction set Exploit capabilites of technology technology
locality and concurrency

Iterative process
generate proposed architecture estimate cost measure performance

Current emphasis is on overcoming sequential nature of programs


deep pipelining multiple issue dynamic scheduling branch prediction/speculation

PC B

Instr. Cache IR C A

Regs

Performance Measurement and Evaluation


Many Dimensions to Performance
CPU execution time
by instruction or sequence floating point integer branch performance

Cache bandwidth Main memory bandwidth I/O performance


bandwidth seeks pixels or polygons per second

Relative importance depends on applications

Perkembangan Teknologi
Tahun 1951 1965 Teknologi Vacuum tube Transistor Relative performance/biaya 1 35

1975
1995 2005

Integrated circuit (IC)


Very large scale IC (VLSI) Ultra large scale IC

900
2,400,000 6,200,000,000

Processor transistor: 30% - 40% per tahun Kapasitas Memori: 60% per tahun Kapasitas Disk: 60% per tahun Kesempatan untuk aplikasi-aplikasi baru Organisasi dan design yang lebih baik

Pertumbuhan Kapasitas per DRAM Chip


Kapasitas DRAM berlipat empat kalilipat hampir setiap 3 tahun
Bertambah 60% per tahun, selama 20 tahun

Performa Processor (1978-2005)

Meningkat hampir 10000x antara 1978 dan 2005

Penjualan Microprocessor (1998 2002)


Penjualan processor ARM melebihi processor Intel IA-32, yang muncul lebih dulu Processor ARM biasa dipakai pada cell phone Kebanyakan processor kini tertanam di cell phones, TV digital, video games, dan banyak peralatan lain.

Kelas Komputer
Desktop / Notebook
Tujuan umum, bermacam-macam software

Server Computers
Berbasis jaringan Kapasitas, Performa, dan Keandalan tinggi Ukuran bervariasi dari yang kecil hingga seukuran bangunan

Embedded Computers
Tersembunyi sebagai komponen dari sistem
Kendala daya/performa/biaya yang ketat

Penjualan Komputer (1998 2002)

Pasar Processor (1997-2007)


Millions of Units

Multilevel machine
Typical virtual machine levels
High-level-language (HLL) machine level Assembly language machine level Operating system machine level Instruction set architecture (ISA) level Microarchitecture level Digital logic level

Digital logic level adalah hardware (berisi transistors, kabel, power supply, dll.)
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Perkembangan multilevel machines


Tiga level architecture
ISA level Microprogram level Digital logic level

Microprogram level
Menginterpretasikan perintah-perintah ISA menggunakan digital logic level

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Perkembangan multilevel machines


Operating system level
Memberikan perintah kepada ISA level Perintah yang diberikan:

Bisa langsung dijalankan oleh ISA level Diinterpretasikan lebih lanjut oleh microprogram level

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Perkembangan multilevel machines


CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer)
Zaman keemasan bagi microprogram level 1960an hingga1970an microprogram level berevousi menjadi semakin canggih Proses ekseskusi lambat

RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer)


Perintah-perintah kecil langsung dieksekusi Menambah kecepatan eksekusi sekaligus harga

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computer architecture dari masa ke masa


Tahun
~1834 1943 1944 1946 ~1952 1960s 1964 1964 1978 1981 1985 1992

Dibuat oleh
Charles Babbage British government Howard Aiken Mauchley & Eckert John von Neumann Ken Olson (DEC) Seymour Cray IBM DEC IBM MIPS DEC

Nama
Analytical Engine COLLOSSUS Mark I ENIAC I IAS PDP-1 and PDP-8 CDC 6600 System/360 VAX IBM PC MIPS Alpha

Keterangan
First programmed computer (mechanical) First electronic computer Electromagnetic relays Vacuum tubes, computed artillery tables First stored program computer (von Neumann architecture) Transistors, minicomputer First scientific supercomputer Integrated circuits, first family of computers First 32-bit superminicomputer Started personal computer era First commercial RISC machine First 64-bit personal computer
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Computer generations
0th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 1642 1945 1945 1955 1955 1965 1965 1980 1980 1970s Mechanical Vacuum tubes Transistors Integrated circuits VLSI, personal computers Invisible computers

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Moores Law
Jumlah transistor pada chip bertambah 2 kali lipat setiap 18 bulan
Gordon Moore (co-founder Intel) 1965 Bukan merupakan hukum alam, hanya observasi empiris

Moores law terbukti benar sejak tahun 1960-an sampai sekarang Bertambah dari 103 menjadi108 transistor per chip

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Moores Law

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Jenis Komputer

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Contoh komputer architectures


rchitecture Pentium 4 UltraSPARC III Intel 8051 (MCS-51 family) Type CISC personal computers RISC servers 8-bit microcontrollers imbedded systems

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Intel computer family

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Intel computer family

Moores law pada chip (Intel) CPU.


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