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Past, Present, and Future of Mobile Computing

Yu Cai Department of Computer Science University of Colorado at Colorado Springs
6/2/2005 Yu Cai/MTU Talk 1

Presentation outline

on mobile computing

of mobile computing of mobile computing
* GSM/GPRS/CDMA *Bluetooth


* Wireless LAN * Mobile IP

* Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET)

* PDA/SmartPhone/Laptop * Sensor/Zigbee Mesh
* Security


of mobile computing
Yu Cai/MTU Talk 2


What is mobile computing?

Mobile computing is to describe technologies that
 

enable people to access network services anyplace, anytime, and anywhere, with portable and wireless computing and communication devices. --- (where is this referenced? Provide citation!) User mobility
   

Aspects of mobility

Between Between Between Between

different geographical locations different networks different communication devices different applications

Device portability
 

Between different geographical locations Between different networks
Yu Cai/MTU Talk 3


org/wiki/ 6/2/2005 Yu Cai/MTU Talk 4 . Promoters of this idea hope that embedding computation into the environment would enable people to move around and interact with computers more naturally than they currently do.Mobile Computing vs. rather than having computers which are distinct objects. Another term for ubiquitous computing is pervasive computing. This includes devices like laptops with wireless LAN technology. and wireless computing and communication devices. -. or sometimes ubiqcomp) integrates computation into the environment.wikipedia. and USB flash drives.http://en. portable. Ubiquitous Computing/Pervasive Computing   Mobile Computing is a generic term describing the application of small. mobile phones. Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp. wearable computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) with Bluetooth or IRDA interfaces.

hotel. weather. war. from busses. terrorist attacks. Early transmission of patient data to the hospital. hurricane. Sales representatives are using Tablet PCs with Smart phones for presentation.  Sales   Emergencies   6/2/2005 Yu Cai/MTU Talk 5 . high-speed trains) can be transmitted in advance for maintenance  Medical  Nurses/Doctors in Medical offices are now using Wireless Tablet PCs/WLAN to collect and share patient information. guidance system. music via DAB personal communication using GSM position via GPS local ad-hoc network with vehicles close-by to prevent accidents. transmitting/access information among office. and customer location.. road condition.Applications of mobile computing  Vehicles     transmission of news.. redundancy  vehicle data (e.g. .. fire). current status. first diagnosis Provide mobile infrastructure in dealing with Natural Disaster (earthquake.

Natural evolution of computing More Flexible Resource Usage Mobile Computing LANs + WorkStations Networking Timesharing Batch Single User OS Freedom from Collocation 6/2/2005 Yu Cai/MTU Talk 6 .

bandwidth fluctuation Devices more vulnerable. high bandwidth variability Security risk Heterogeneous network   Location awareness   Higher loss-rates. higher delays. hand-off Frequencies have to be coordinated Yu Cai/MTU Talk 7 Low bandwidth. more jitter  Restrictive regulations of frequencies  6/2/2005 . energy management. endpoint authentication harder Different devices. user interface Kbit/s to Mbit/s. interfaces and protocols Locality adaptation Connection setup time. smaller.Challenges in mobile computing      Mobility means changes Hardware     Lighter.

IEEE802.History of wireless communication  1896 Guglielmo Marconi. smaller.   First demonstration of wireless telegraphy Based on long wave. better quality transmitters by vacuum tube     1907 Commercial Trans-Atlantic Wireless Service  1920 Discovery of short waves by Marconi     1982 1983 1992 1997 1998  Start of GSM in Europe (1G analog) Start of AMPS in America (1G analog) Start of GSM (2G digital) Wireless LAN . requiring very large transmitters Huge ground stations: 30 x 100m antenna masts Cheaper.11 Iridium satellite system Yu Cai/MTU Talk 8 66 satellites 6/2/2005 .

11b  Bluetooth  WAP (Wireless Application Protocol): access to many services via the mobile phone 2000 GSM with higher data rates (2. CDMA2000 in Korea. UMTS tests in Europe Yu Cai/MTU Talk 9 6/2/2005 .History of wireless communication    1999 Standardization of additional wireless LANs  IEEE standard 802. several “members” of a “family”.2000.5G digital)  HSCSD offers up to 57.6kbit/s  First GPRS trials with up to 50 kbit/s 2001 Start of 3G systems  IMT .

Overview of mobile devices Pager • receive only • tiny displays • simple text messages Smart phone • voice. embedded controllers Wearable device • human wearable • non standard I/O PDA • graphical displays • character recognition performance 6/2/2005 Yu Cai/MTU Talk 10 . data • simple graphical displays Laptop • fully functional • standard applications Sensors.

5G 3G 4G? analogue digital Yu Cai/MTU Talk 20?? Fourth Generation? 6/2/2005 11 .Overview of development cellular phones 1981: NMT 450 satellites 1982: Inmarsat-A cordless phones 1980: CT0 1984: CT1 1987: CT1+ 1989: CT 2 1991: DECT wireless LAN 1983: AMPS 199x: proprietary 1997: IEEE 802.11N 1G 1986: NMT 900 1988: Inmarsat-C 1991: CDMA 1991: D-AMPS 1993: PDC 1992: Inmarsat-B Inmarsat-M 2G 1992: GSM 1994: DCS 1800 1998: Iridium 2000: GPRS 2001: IMT-2000 2. Bluetooth 2000: IEEE 802.11a 2003: IEEE 802.11g 2007?: IEEE 802.11 1999: 802.11b.

CDMA. 10 Kbps Local 6/2/2005 Satellite Wide Coverage Area Yu Cai/MTU Talk 12 . GPRS.Overview of wireless services Data Rates 10 Mbps Wireless LAN IR 1 Mbps 50 Kbps Cellular: GSM.

4 GHz band.4 GHz band.11: up AP to 2 Mbps in the Network 2.11pre-n devices.Wireless LAN   IEEE 802. Vendors already selling 802.11b: up to 11 Mbps in the 2.11n: up to 220+ Mbps in the 2. 802. 802.11 promises true vendor interoperability.4/5 GHz band (two proposals not approved yet).11 standard: a family of specifications for wireless LAN technology.  802.11 specifies an over-the-air interface between a AP: Access Point wireless client and a base station or between two AP wireless clients. Yu Cai/MTU Talk 13 6/2/2005 .11a/g: up to 54 Mbps in the 5/2. The IEEE accepted the specification in 1997.11 product strategy. AP 802. Every vendor must have a viable 802.4 GHz band.     Wired 802. 802.

Use other security mechanisms such as VPN.    A basic wireless LAN security mechanism.  Research project on PEAP / TTLS in our research group in University of Colorado. PEAP and TTLS. commonly used. Don’t rely on WEP for wireless security. which makes bad situation worse. Easy to set up.Wireless LAN Security  WEP: Wired Equivalent Privacy. MAC address based access control mechanism doesn’t work. There are a number of flaws in the WEP. Yu Cai/MTU Talk 14 6/2/2005 .    Many wireless home networks don’t even use WEP.

No infrastructure.Wireless Ad Hoc Network  Wireless Ad Hoc Network (peer to peer)    A collection of autonomous nodes that communicate with each other by forming a multi-hop radio network in a decentralized manner. Limited resources on sensors Yu Cai/MTU Talk 15  Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET)    Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks   6/2/2005 . no default router available “every” node needs to be a router Host movement frequent Topology change frequent A number of sensors spread across a geographical area.

scalable mechanism for node mobility within the Internet.   Mobile IP provides an efficient. Applications:  Mobile IP is most often found in wireless WAN environments where users need to carry their mobile devices across multiple LANs with different IP addresses. Yu Cai/MTU Talk 16 6/2/2005 . Mobile IP allows moving devices to maintain transport and higher-layer connections while moving. However.Mobile IP   Mobile IP is designed to allow mobile device users to move from one network to another while maintaining their permanent IP address. traditional scheme requires to change IP address when host moves between networks. Motivation:   Changing the IP address is not desired when host moves.

HA intercepts packet (proxy ARP) 2. FA forwards the packet to the MN Yu Cai/MTU Talk 17 . by encapsulation 3. Sender sends to the IP address of MN. HA tunnels packet to COA. here FA.Mobile IP: Basic Idea Home Agent (HA) Mobile Node (MN) 2 home network Internet 3 receiver foreign network COA: ? Foreign Agent (FA) 1 sender 6/2/2005 1.

Mobile IP: Basic Idea HA 1 MN home network Internet sender FA foreign network CN receiver 1. FA works as default router Yu Cai/MTU Talk 18 6/2/2005 . Sender sends to the IP address of the receiver as usual.

PCs. Named after a Denmark king Harold Bluetooth. who is known for his unification of previously warring tribes. Bluetooth differs from Wi-Fi in that   Different multiplexing schemes.45 GHz band. mobile phones. more expensive hardware. and higher power consumption. low power consumption. Wireless mouse.Bluetooth     Bluetooth is used to connect and exchange information between devices like PDAs. greater distances. Low-cost. wireless headset Yu Cai/MTU Talk 19  Applications:  6/2/2005 . Wi-Fi with higher throughput. Using the same frequency range. printers and digital cameras wirelessly. license-free 2. laptops. short range (up to 10m).

RFID: Radio Frequency Identification  RFID is a method of remotely storing and retrieving data using devices called RFID tags.) Active RFID: battery powered. RFID tags contain antennas to enable them to receive and respond to radio-frequency queries from an RFID transceiver. frost etc. that can be attached to or incorporated into a product.     An RFID tag is a small object. distances up to 6 m Automated toll collection: RFIDs mounted in windshields allow commuters to drive through toll plazas without stopping Yu Cai/MTU Talk 20  Categories:    Applications:  6/2/2005 . distances up to 100 m Passive RFID: operating power comes from the reader over the air. such as an adhesive sticker. No line-of sight required (compared to laser scanners) Withstand difficult environmental conditions (cold.

   Formerly: Groupe Spéciale Mobile (founded 1982) Now: Global System for Mobile Communication European standard. One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). moving to North America    More than one billion people use GSM phones as of 2005. making GSM the dominant mobile phone system worldwide with about 70% of the world's market. which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. GSM is a cellular network.GSM  One of the most popular standards for mobile phones in the world. commonly known as a SIM card. The SIM is a detachable smartcard containing the user's subscription information and phonebook. Yu Cai/MTU Talk 21 6/2/2005 .

EIR. AUC NSS with OSS VLR MSC VLR MSC HLR GMSC fixed network BSC BSC RSS (Radio Subsystem) NSS (Network and switching subsystem) OSS (Operation Subsystem) MS (Mobile Station) BTS (Base Transceiver Station) BSC (Base Station Controller) MSC (Mobile Services Switching Center) GMSC (Gateway MSC) HLR (Home Location Register) VLR (Visitor Location Register) EIR (Equipment Identity Register) AUC (Authentication Center ) OMC (Operation and Maintenance Center ) 22 RSS MS MS BTS 6/2/2005 Yu Cai/MTU Talk .GSM Overview OMC.

GPRS     GPRS: General Packet Radio Service It is a mobile data service available to users of GSM mobile phones. GPRS is packet-switched which means that multiple users share the same transmission channel. voice and data services will be mixed in a normal communication. by allocating unused cell bandwidth to transmit data. It is often described as "2. GPRS data is billed per kilobytes of information transceived  In 3G mobile systems like UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System). Yu Cai/MTU Talk 23 6/2/2005 . only transmitting when they have data to send.   Poor bit rate in busy cells Usually.5G“. GPRS provides moderate speed data transfer.

notebook and desknote computers. memo pad and a simple calculator. Palm OS by PalmSource. One major advantage of using PDAs is their ability to synchronize data with desktop. but became much more versatile over the years. address book. Yu Cai/MTU Talk 24 . task list. compared to Q1 2003. Inc Windows Mobile (Windows CE) by Microsoft BlackBerry by Research In Motion Symbian by a group of companies  The currently major PDA operating systems are:      6/2/2005 According to a Gartner market study. date book. A basic PDA usually includes a clock. the overall market for PDAs shrunk by 5% in the first quarter (Q1) of 2004.PDA  Personal digital assistants (PDAs or palmtops)    handheld devices that were originally designed as personal organizers.

4 kbps). developing countries IRIDIUM  Motorola  Voice.e.. Data (2. satellites) move as will as mobile devices Satellite coverage attractive for areas of world not well served by existing terrestrial infrastructure: ocean areas. Fax. except that the base stations (i.Satellite Systems    Like cellular systems. Location Services  66 satellites in 6 polar orbits (780 km)  Failed project Yu Cai/MTU Talk 25 6/2/2005 .

quality of service. multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) 802. redundancy intelligence at the edge.11N dynamic spectrum allocation IP-based. beam forming.Future mobile and wireless networks   Shift industrial paradigm from piecewise solutions to end-to-end information systems Improved radio technology and antennas   smart antennas. mobile IP spontaneous communication. not in the network (as with IN) more service providers. not network operators only    Core network convergence     Ad-hoc technologies Simple and open service platform 6/2/2005 Yu Cai/MTU Talk 26 . power saving.

personal area 6/2/2005 horizontal handover Yu Cai/MTU Talk 27 . in-house.Integrated mobile computing Integration of heterogeneous fixed and mobile networks with varying transmission characteristics regional vertical handover metropolitan area campus-based in-car.

GGSN. CS core gateways MSC server farm.IP-based next generation network ? SS7 signalling PSTN. gateways. gateway Internet access points private private WLAN WPAN RNC UMTS public WLAN 6/2/2005 Yu Cai/MTU Talk 28 . proxies broadcast SGSN GSM BSC IP-based core router firewall. … Mobile Computing Courses  MIT: http://nms.  http://www.f00/  UT Austin:  UC Berkley: http://www.cs.Literature        Jochen Schiller – Mobile Communications Ivan Stojmeniovic – Handbook of Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing Andrew Tanenbaum – Computer Networks James D.829-f01/  Stanford: http://www. papers.htm  Perkins – Ad-hoc networking Papers. the Internet unplugged Charles E.lcs. Solomon – Mobile IP.htm   http://kunz-pc.cs.ucsb.html 6/2/2005 Yu Cai/MTU Talk 29 .

Thank you! 6/2/2005 Yu Cai/MTU Talk 30 .