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as well as new and upgraded.  .FACTS means Flexible Alternating Current Transmitting Systems  The FACTS technology opens up new opportunities for controlling power and enhancing the usable capacity of present.  The possibility that current and therefore power through a line can be controlled enables a large potential of increasing the capacity of existing lines. lines.

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  Static Shunt Compensators Shunt compensation is used to influence the natural electrical characteristics of the transmission line to increase the steady-state transmittable power and to control the voltage profile along the line. As static shunt compensators are known Static Var Compensators (SVC) and Static Synchronous Compensators (STATCOM). .

TSR and TSC . A shunt-connected static var generator or absorber whose output is adjusted to exchange capacitive or inductive current so as to maintain or control specific parameters of the electrical power system (typically bus voltage).SVC is an umbrella term for several devices as TCR.

 The current in the reactor can be controlled from maximum to zero by the method of firing delay angle control.or zero-conduction operation of the thyristor value.   TSR: A shunt-connected. . thyristor-switched inductor whose effective reactance is varied in a stepwise manner by full. thyristor-controlled inductor whose effective reactance is varied in a continuous manner by partial-conduction control of the thyristor value.TCR: A shunt-connected.

TCR & TSR Reactor .

. thyristor-switched capacitor whose effective reactance is varied in a stepwise manner by full.or zeroconduction operation of the thyristor value. TSC: A shunt-connected.

. STATCOM: A static synchronous generator operated as a shunt-connected static VAR compensator whose capacitive or inductive output current can be controlled independent of the AC system voltage.

Thyristor-Switched Series Capacitor (TSSC) A TSSC compensator which consists of a series capacitor bank shunted by a thyristor-controlled reactor in order to provide a smoothly variable series capacitive reactance. .

 TCSC: A capacitive reactance compensator which consists of a series capacitor bank shunted by a thyristor-controlled reactor in order to provide a smoothly variable series capacitive reactance. .

to increase or decrease momentarily.  The SSSC may include transiently rated energy storage or energy absorbing devices to enhance the dynamic behavior of the power system by additional temporary active power compensation. the overall active(resistive) voltage drop across the line. Static-Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC): A static synchronous generator operated without an external electric energy source as a series compensator whose output voltage is in quadrature with.  . and controllable independently of. the line current for the purpose of increasing or decreasing the overall reactive voltage drop across the line and thereby controlling the transmitted electric power.

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  Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) .

concurrently or selectively. to allow bidirectional flow of active power between the series output terminals of the SSSC and the shunt output terminals of the STATCOM. the active and reactive power flow in the line. and are controlled to provide concurrent active and reactive series line compensation without an external electric energy source. the transmission line voltage. is able to control. and angle or. impedance.  The UPFC may also provide independently controllable shunt reactive compensation. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC):  A combination of static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) and a static series compensator (SSSC) which are coupled via a common dc link. alternatively. by means of angularly unconstrained series voltage injection.  The UPFC. .

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 The IPFC structure may also include a STATCOM .Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC): The combination of two or more Static Synchronous Series Compensators which are coupled via a common dc link to facilitate bi-directional flow of active power between the ac terminals of the SSSCs. to provide shunt reactive compensation and supply or absorb the overall active power deficit of the combined SSSC’s. coupled to the IPFC’s common dc link. and are controlled to provide independent reactive compensation for the adjustment of active power flow in each line and maintain the desired distribution of reactive power flow among the lines.  .