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Contactors and motor starters

Burhanuddin Yamani Oktavian Lintin Nur Endah Lizarifin

Magnetic Contactors
Magnetic contactors as a magnetically actuated device for repeatedly establishing or interrupting an electrical power circuit

Application To switch power on and off to a pump To switch power on and off to a distribution panel Used with pilot device to control temperature and liquid level of a tank .

• • • • • • and the manual apparatus must control only the coil of contactor Allow multiple operation Automatically initiate the proper sequence of events Automatically controlled by very sensitive pilot device Increasing the safety of an installation The control equipment may be mounted at a remote point Possible with equipment such as PLC .Advantages • Matter a build a magnetic contactor that will handle large currents of high voltage.

Type of operating electromagnets • • • • Clapper Bell-crank Horizontal-action Vertical-action .

DC Contactor vs AC Contactor DC Contactor • Large number of turn • High ohmic resistance • Limited by resistance AC Contactor • Small number of turns • Low ohmic reistance • Limited by impedance .

Shading Coils • Shading Coils is a single turn of conducting material munted on the face of the magnetic assembly • It use to reduce the noise on the contactor .

and interrupt current without undue arcing .Main contact of a contactor • Act as switch • Must carry their rated current without overheating. make current without bouncing or welding.

Auxiliary Contacts • Have a much lower current rating and are used like a relay to interlock or hold circuit .

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Raw material of contacts • Copper • Silver .

Arc suppression • Arc suppression is required to keep the contacts in the device from burning up .

provide a magnetic field that blows out the arc .Arc Chutes • Often called blowout coil • Help to extinguish an electric arc at contacts opening under ac and dc loads • Connected in series with the load.

Contactor Sizes and Ratings • Magnetic contactors are rated by NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) according to the contactors ability to carry rated current for 8 hours without overheating according to size and type of load to be controlled. .

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Load utilization categories include :     Nonlinear load Resistive loads Inductive loads Capacitive loads .• Magnetic contactors are also rated for the type of load to be utilized or actual applications.

shocks. More severe environments require more substantial enclosures. . and tilting o Subject to high ambient air temperature. Sever environment factors to be considered include: o Exposure to damaging fumes o Operation in damp place o Exposure to excessive dust o Subject to vibration.• Enclosed magnetic contactors must be housed in an approved enclosure based on the environment in which they must operate to provide mechanical and electrical protection.

• There are two general types of enclosures: 1. hazardous-location. are classified into two categories:  Gaseous vapors  Combustible dusts . nonhazardous-location. are further subdivided into the following categories:  General-purpose  Watertight  Oiltight  Dusttight 2.

Solid-state Contactor • A solid-state contactor is a power-switching device designed to replace magnetic contactors for application involving both resistive and inductive loads. . • Solid-state three-phase contactors are especially suited to highcycling applications owing to the absence of arc-producing air gap contacts.

• Two SCRs connected in inverse-parallel are necessary to switch ac power • Zero-fired control refers to turning on the SCRs at the zero voltage crossing for full cycles. motors. and other inductive loads. applying full power or no power with the proportion of full cycles. This is some times called integral cycle mode or burst firing . or determining the resulting power to the load.• Silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs) is the most common high- power switching semiconductor that enable reliable control of electric power from 1 kW to 1000 kW for most types of resistance heaters.