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Principles and Purpose of Language Assessment

Prepared by: Erika Joyce M. Santos

and making judgements and/or decisions based on the information collected. standard scores. etc. and summarising assessment information. . reflecting upon.Key Concepts Evaluation is the process of analysing. Measurement refers to the set of procedures and the principles on how to use those procedures in educational tests and assessment. percentile ranks. Some of the basic principles of measurement would be raw scores. derived scores.

b. Formal assessment are exercises or procedures which are: • systematic • give students and teachers an appraisal of students’ achievement such as tests. observing students perform a task or work in small groups. verbal feedback to students. . and may also include methods such as observations. interviews. and so on. It may include test. etc. behaviour monitoring. Informal assessment can take a number of forms: • unplanned comments. a.Key Concepts Assessment is the process of gathering information on student learning.

c. d. or summarize. and typically occurs at the end of the course or unit of instruction. what the student has grasped. Formative Assessment is evaluating students in the process of forming their competencies and skills with the goal of helping them to continue that growth process. Summative Assessment aims to measure. .

Language Assessment Assessment in language teaching has purpose to evaluate the students mastery both students skills and knowledge. .

Principles of Language Assessment 1. 2004)  Factors that may influence the reliability of a test:  Students-related reliability  Rater reliability  Test administration reliability  Test reliability .  A test is reliable if: You give the same test to the same student or matched students on two different occasions. and it must be a scoring/ evaluation procedure that is specific and time-efficient. Practicality  Not expensive. 2. Reliability  Consistency of assessment results (Linn & Gronlund). relatively easy to administer. the test should yield similar results. within appropriate time constraint. (Brown.

How well use of assessment results accomplishes intended purposes and avoids unintended effect. • Construct Related Evidence. • Consequential Validity.If a test samples the subject matter about which conclusions are to be drawn and if it requires the test-taker to perform the behavior that is being measured. • Criterion-Related Evidence. .Principles of Language Assessment 3. • Content-Related. Validity  Measuring what should be measure.How well performance on the assessment can be interpreted as meaningful measure of some characteristics or is used to demonstrate the accuracy of a measure or procedure by comparing it with another measure or procedure which has been demonstrated to be valid.

the administrative personnel who decide on its use.Principles of Language Assessment • Face Validity.It refers to the degree to which a test looks right.  Topics: meaningful (relevant. . or closely approximate. and other psychometrically unsophisticated observers (Mousavi in Brown.  Generally refers to the effects tests have on instruction in terms of how students prepare for the test (Brown.  Items: contextualized rather than isolated. and appears to measure the knowledge or ability it claims to measure.  Tasks represent. real-world tasks. interesting) for the learner. 2004) Authenticity  The language: as natural as possible. based on the subjective judgment of the examinees who take it. Washback  The effect of testing on teaching and learning (Hughes in Brown. 4. such as through a story line or episode. 2004). 5. 2004).  Some thematic organization to items is provided.

Purpose of Assessment Diagnose students strengths and needs Provide feedback on student learning Provide a basis for instructional placement Inform and guide instruction Communicate learning expectations Motivate and focus students’ attention and effort Provide practice applying knowledge and skills .

Purpose of Assessment Provide a basis for evaluation for the purpose of: Grading Promotion/graduation Program admission/selection Accountability Gauge program effectiveness .

it is used to measure student’s ability to discover how much they have been learning. In teaching.Functions of Language Test In learning. and to motivate learning. language acquisition. it serves as a basis related to language proficiency. language attrition and language teaching. language processing. to diagnose the student’s strengths and weaknesses. In research. . it is a means to ensure and improve effective teaching quality to obtain feedback on students learning.