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Radiographic Films

Radiographic Film Base
Base must be :1. Transparent - To allow white light to go through 2. Chemically inert 3. Must not be susceptible to expansion and contraction

4. High tensile strength
5. Flexibility

Radiographic Film
Subbing Base

Subbing
Subbing layer is the adhesive between the emulsion and base

Radiographic Film
Supercoat

Emulsion AgBr
Subbing

Base
Subbing

Emulsion AgBr
Supercoat

What are the advantages of Double Coated Film? •Improve contrast • Reduce the exposure time .

the developer completely converts the affected crystals into black metallic silver 3. The silver halide crystals are partially converted into metallic silver to produce the latent image 2. The radiograph attains its final appearance by fixation . The affected crystals are the amplified by the developer.Image formation When radiation passes through an object it is differentially absorbed depending upon the materials thickness and any differing densities The portions of radiographic film that receive sufficient amounts of radiation undergo minute changes to produce the latent image (hidden image) 1.

Film Types Grain Size Coarse Medium Fine Ultra Fine Speed Fast Medium Slow V.Large grain structure . Rapid mixing at low temperature .Good Film factor 10 35 90 200 Film emulsion produced by mixing solutions of nitrate and salt such as potassium bromide.Slow Quality Poor Medium Good V.Finest grain structure 2. Slow mixing at high temperature . • The rate and temperature determine the grain structures 1.

Processing Film .

Processing Systems Developer Stop Manual System bath Running water .

Processing Systems Development Metallic Silver converted into Black metallic silver 3-5 min at 20OC 68 F Main Constituents Developing agent metol-hydroquinone Accelerator keeps solution alkaline Restrainer ensures only exposed silver halides converted Preservative prevents oxidation by air Replenishment Purpose – to ensure that the activity of the developer and the developing time required remains constant Guideline – 1. After 1m2 of film has been developed. about 400 ml of replenisher needs to be added .

neutralises the developer .Processing Systems Stop Bath 3% Acetic acid .

Removes all unexposed silver grains 2.The time taken for the radiography to loose its milky appearance. Hardens the emulsion gelatin • Clearing time .1.Processing Systems Fixer • Sodium thiosulphate or ammonium thiosulphate • Functions:. • Fixing time .Twice the clearing time .

• Insufficient washing the film can caused the yellow fog appears.Processing Systems Running water • Films should be washed in a tank with constant running water for at least 20 minutes. .

SENSITOMETRY .

Characteristic Curves • Increasing exposures applied to successive areas of a film • After development the densities are measured • The density is then plotted against the log of the exposure Characteristic curve Sensitometric curve Hunter & Driffield curve .

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Characteristic Curves Density (Log) Shoulder Straight line section Toe Log Relative Exposure .

Characteristic Curves Information which can be obtained from a films characteristic curve • The position of the curve on the exposure axis gives information about the films speed • The gradient of the curve gives information on the films contrast .

Characteristic Curves Density (Log) Density obtained in a photographic emulsion does not vary linearly with applied exposure The steeper the slope the greater the contrast Log Relative Exposure .

Characteristic Curves Information which can be obtained from a films characteristic curve • The position of the curve on the exposure axis gives information about the films speed .

Characteristic Curves Density A B C D E Film A is faster than Film B Film B faster then C Log Relative Exposure .

Characteristic Curves Information which can be obtained from a films characteristic curve • The position of the curve on the exposure axis gives information about the films speed • The gradient of the curve gives information on the films contrast • The position of the straight line portion of the curve against the density axis will show the density range range within which the film is at its optimal .

5 Density required 2.1.3 1.5 1.5 = 3.Changing Density Density achieved 1.3 = 0.18 Therefore multiply exposure by 3.8 Original exposure 10 mA mins New exposure 31.8 .5 Antilog of 0.8mA mins Log Relative Exposure .5 Determine interval between logs 1.18 (measured density is lower than the required density) 1.5 Density 2.

Changing Film
Obtain Logs for Films A and B at required density Interval between logs = 0.15 Density
2.5
A B

Antilog of 0.15 = 1.42
Multiply exposure by 1.42
1.7 1.85

Original exposure 10 mA mins New exposure 14.2 mA mins

Log Relative Exposure

RADIOGRAPHIC DEFINITION
DEFINITION is the sharpness of the dividing line between areas of different density

Radiographic Definition

Geometric unsharpness

Inherent unsharpness

• FFD/SFD too short
• OFD too large • Source size too large

• Coarse grain film
• Salt screens • Wavelength too short

• Vibration/movement
• Poor screen contact

Radiographic Definition
Geometry Unsharpness ( Ug)
• Controlled

by focal spot, focal to film distance ( FFD), object to film distance (OFD)

Inherent unsharpness (Ui)
• Controlled by the type of films being used (slow or fast), type of screens and amount of backscatter

Geometry of Image Formation .

Penumbra Ug) Focal spot size.25mm) ofd fod ffd . F Ug= F x ofd fod (Ug = 0.

Penumbra (Ug)  Source size as small as possible  Source to object distance as large as possible  Object to film distance as small as possible .

4mm .25 Penumbra = 0.Penumbra Calculations Penumbra = S = 4mm OFD = 25mm FFD = 275 S x OFD FFD .OFD = 4 x 25 275 .

25) S = 4mm OFD = 25mm FFD = 275 = 4 x 25 + 25 0.25 Min FFD = 425mm .Penumbra Calculations Min FFD = S x OFD + OFD Penumbra (0.

Inherent Unsharpness Stray electrons from exposed crystals - - - - Exposed radiograph with crack like indication Adjacent crystals affected by stray electrons .

Inherent Unsharpness  Large film grain size increased inherent Unsharpness Short wavelength increased inherent Unsharpness Loose film crystal distribution increased inherent Unsharpness   .

Intensifying Screens Radiographic film is usually sandwiched between two intensifying screens There are three main types of intensifying screens • Lead screens • Fluorescent screens • Fluorometallic screens .

15mm Front screen shortens exposure time and improves quality by filtering out scatter Back screen acts as a filter only  .02mm to 0.Lead Intensifying Screens   Film placed between 2 intensifying screens Intensification action achieved by emitting particulate radiation (electrons)   Generally lead of 0.

Salt Intensifying Screens  Film placed between 2 intensifying screens  Intensification action achieved by emitting Light radiation (Visible or UV-A)  Intensification action twice that of lead screens  No filtration action achieved  Salt used calcium tungstate .

Fluorometallic Intensifying Screens  Film placed between 2 intensifying screens  Intensification action achieved by emitting light radiation (Visible or UV-A) and particulate radiation electrons)  High cost  Front screen acts as a filter and intensifier  Salt used calcium tungstate .

Scatter • Radiation emitted from any other source than that giving the primary desired rectilinear propagation • Scatter will lead to poorer contrast and definition and create spurious indications • It may also cause radiological protection problems .

Scatter • Internal scatter • Side scatter path of beam • Back scatter film originating within the specimen walls and nearby objects in the the primary materials located behind the .

Scatter • Internal scatter originating within the specimen .

Scatter • Side scatter walls and nearby objects in the path of the primary beam .

Scatter • Back scatter materials located behind the film .

Control of Scatter • • • • • • Collimation Protection from back scatter Beam filtration Blocking Grids Increased beam energy .

Sensitivity IQI sensitivity Defect sensitivity .

IQI sensitivity The image on a radiograph which is used to determine the quality level Defect sensitivity Ability to assist the sensitivity and locate a defect on a radiograph (Depend on the defect orientation) .

Image Quality Indicator .

Image Quality Indicators  IQI’s / Penetrameters are used to measure radiographic sensitivity and the quality of the radiographic technique used. They are not used to measure the size of defects detected  Standards for IQI’s include: BS 3971 BS EN 462 DIN 62 .

Image Quality Indicators 7FE12 Step / Hole type IQI Wire type IQI .

Image Quality Indicators .

5mm 4T dia T dia 2T dia 17 38mm 12mm 0.0mm 2.5mm 1.00mm T IQI Sensitivity 1 Hole visible = 4T 2 Holes visible = T 3 Holes visible = 2T .ASME Image Quality Indicators Penetrmeter Design Minimum Penetrmeter Thickness (2% of the weld thickness) Minimum Diameter for 1T Hole Minimum Diameter for 2T Hole Minimum Diameter for 4T Hole 0.

Image Quality Indicators Step/Hole Type IQI Wire Type IQI .

Placement of IQI • IQI must be placed on the maximum thickness of weld • Thinnest required step or wire must be placed at the extreme edge of section under test • IQI must be placed at the source side • In case of access problem . • IQI material chosen should have similar radiation absorption/transmission properties to the test specimen . letter ‘FS’ should be placed beside the IQI. IQI has to placed on the film side of the object.

IQI Sensitivity   Ideally IQI should be placed on the source side IQI sensitivity is calculated from the following formula Sensitivity % = Thickness of thinnest step/wire visible x 100 Object Thickness .

15 0.08 0.25 0.00 6.63 0.80 0.35 0.40 0.60 0.16 0.75 0.00 1.10 0.00 5.063 0.20 1.125 0.00 2.30 BS 3971 STEP 7-12 13-18 4-10 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 WIRE 9-15 15-21 DIN 54 109 WIRE (DIN 62) 1-7 6-12 10-16 H1 BS EN 462-2 STEP/HOLE H5 H9 H 13 W1 BS EN 462-1 WIRE W6 W 10 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 W 13 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 3 2 1 .32 0.60 1.50 3.90 1.50 0.20 0.20 4.Image Quality Indicators Thickness (mm) 1-6 0.80 2.25 1.30 0.00 3.50 1.050 0.

5 wires visible on the radiograph IQI pack 6-12 Din 62.IQI Sensitivity A Radiograph of a 16mm thick butt weld is viewed under the correct conditions. what is the IQI sensitivity? Sensitivity = Thickness of thinnest wire visible X 100 Total weld thickness Sensitivity = 0.5 % .4 X 100 16 Sensitivity = 2.

IQI Sensitivity Using the same IQI pack 6-12 Din 62. How many IQI wires must be visible to give an IQI sensitivity of 2 % Thickness of thinnest wire visible = Sensitivity X Total weld thickness 100 = 2.0 X 16 100 = 0.32 6 wires visible .

Radiographic Definition Definition measured by the use of a type III I.I. Alternative terms given •Duplex type •Cerl type B •EN 462 part 5 .Q.

Exposure Control .

Exposure control • For FFD/SFD change T1 D1 2 = T2 D2 2 T1 = New exposure time T2 = Original exposure time D1 = New FFD D2 = Original FFD .

4 mins .Exposure control • For FFD/SFD change Example: Calculate new exposure time for FFD = 600 mm Original exposure at 500mm was 10 min T1 = (600) 2 (500) 2 X 10 = 14.

min) M = Tube current (mA) T = Exposure time (min) .Exposure calculation E = M X Time (mA.min) E = exposure (mA.

an-x-ray machine is set at 5mA and the radiographic film is exposed for a period of 15 minutes. What is the total exposure received by the film? Solution: Given.Exposure calculation In one radiographic operation. Tube current (M) = 5mA Exposure time (t) = 15 minutes Exposure ( E) = M X T = 5 X 15 = 75 mA.min .

Radiographic Techniques .

source outside  Single Wall Single Image (SWSI) panoramic .film outside.film outside.film inside. source outside (external exposure)  Double Wall Double Image (DWDI) . source outside (elliptical exposure) .film outside.Radiographic Techniques  Single Wall Single Image (SWSI) . source inside (internal exposure)  Double Wall Single Image (DWSI) .

Single wall single image SWSI Film Film IQI’s should be placed source side .

Single wall single image SWSI panoramic Film • IQI’s are placed on the film side • Source inside film outside (single exposure) .

Double wall single image DWSI Film • IQI’s are placed on the film side • Source outside film outside (multiple exposure) • This technique is intended for pipe diameters over 100mm .

Double wall single image DWSI Identification • Unique identification • IQI placing • Pitch marks indicating readable film length A ID MR11 EN W10 B Radiograph .

Double wall double image DWDI elliptical exposure Film • IQI’s are placed on the source side • Source outside film outside (multiple exposure) • A minimum of two exposures • This technique is intended for pipe diameters less than 100mm .

Double wall double image DWDI Identification • Unique identification • IQI placing • Pitch marks indicating readable film length 1 ID MR12 4 EN W10 3 2 Shot A Radiograph .

Double wall double image (DWDI) perpendicular exposure Film • IQI’s are placed on the source side • Source outside film outside (multiple exposure) • A minimum of three exposures • Source side weld is superimposed on film side weld • This technique is intended for small pipe diameters .

0 Density unacceptable .Sandwich Technique Density 3.2 Density 3.0 Density 1.0 Density 1.2 Density requirement 2.0 to 3.

Thicker section FILM B: Slow film .Sandwich Technique FILM A FILM B LEAD SCREENS FILM A FILM B Density 3.0 Density 2.0 to 3.Thinner section Density 2.0 FILM A: Fast film .0 Density 2.0 acceptable .0 Density 3.

Interpretation conditions .

Viewing conditions • Darkened room • Clean viewer • Minimum adequate illumination from the viewer is 3000cd/m2 • Eyesight must be adjusted to the darkened conditions • Comfortable viewing position and environment • Avoid fatigue .

relates to the degree of sharpness  Sensitivity .relates to the degree of difference in density between adjacent areas on a radiograph   Definition .relates to the degree of darkness Contrast .relates to the overall quality of the radiograph .Radiographic Quality  Density .

Factors Influencing Sensitivity Sensitivity Contrast Definition .

Contrast arising from variation in opacity within an irradiated area Radiographic contrast :.The slope of characteristic curve of the film at specified density. fine grain or large grain) . ( Type of film being used.Contrast Subject contrast :.usually subject and the background (overall) Film contrast :.The density difference on a radiography between two areas.

Factors Influencing Sensitivity Sensitivity Contrast Definition Density Film Energy Subject contrast Processing .

Factors Influencing Sensitivity Sensitivity Contrast Definition Density Film Energy Object contrast Processing Time Temperature Type Strength Agitation .

Radiographic Contrast Film Contrast Subject Contrast Film type Density Processing Scatter Wavelength Screens .

Radiographic Contrast Poor contrast Poor contrast High contrast .

Radiographic Density Density = Log10 Incident light Transmitted light * Greater contrast is achieved at higher density .

Radiographic Density Lack of Density     Excessive Density     Under exposure Developer temp too low Exhausted developer Developer too weak Over exposure Excessive development Developer temp too high Too strong a solution .

5 3.5 2.0 1.0 .0 3.Measuring Radiographic Density  Density A is measured by a densitometer densitometer should be calibrated using a density strip 4.0 2.5 1.

Factors Influencing Sensitivity Sensitivity Contrast Definition Film speed Screens Energy Vibration Geometry Processing .

Factors Influencing Sensitivity Sensitivity Contrast Definition Film speed Screens Energy Vibration Geometry Processing Time Temperature Type Strength Agitation .

What is a good radiograph? A good radiograph satisfies the inspection requirement .