LECTURE-04 13.09.10


• Porosity is defined as percentage or fraction of void to the bulk volume of the rock. • The void space in reservoir rocks is the inter-granular spaces between the sedimentary particles

Porosity relations
Let us consider a rock sample. Its apparent volume, or total volume VT, consists of a solid volume VS and a pore volume Vp. The porosity Φ is: Φ
V pore = -------V total VP VT

expressed in %
VT - VS -------VT

= -------- =


VS -------VT

Intera Porosity relations
• The porosity of interest to reservoir specialist is that which allows the fluids in the pores to circulate, is the effective porosity Φu which corresponds to the pores connected to each other and to formation. • Also defined is the total porosity Φt, corresponding to all the pores whether interconnected or not, and to residual porosity Φr, which only takes account of isolated pores. • Φt, = Φu + Φr

= Φu + Φr (Φu) .(Φr) Φt.

Utility limits of porosity • • The effective porosity of rocks varies between less than 1% to 40%. It is often stated that the porosity is: (a) Low if (b) Mediocre if (c) Average if (d) Good if (e) Excellent Φ < 5% 5% < Φ < 10 % 10%< Φ < 20 % 20%< Φ < 30 % Φ > 30% .

dissolution porosity (as in lime stones for example) and fracture porosity. The fracture porosity related to rock volume is often much less than 1% As a rule. . porosity decreases with increasing depth.Remarks A distinction is made between inter granular porosity.

.Remarks Effective porosity is basically used for reserve calculation. In moderate to high porosity rocks. there is little difference in total and effective porosity. but low porosity value there has appreciable and significant difference.

Porosity.related information Types on the basis of origin: • Original porosity (primary) • Induced porosity (secondary) Rocks having original porosity are more uniform in their characteristics than rocks with an induced porosity .

Porosity. Found in sand and sand stones .related information • • • • Primary porosity Is the space between grains that were not compacted together completely This is related to pores/voids between sand grains or solid particles. . conglomerates. It is characterised by more or less uniform distribution in the rock. clays . as well as space between sub layers and voids created after decaying of organisms.

dissolution and fracturing Developed as a result of diagenesis. Characterised with non uniform distribution and it is not possible to establish any trend through out the reservoir. . Connects the altered void spaces with fractures resulting from tectonic disturbances. commonly by processes such as dolomitization.• • • • Secondary porosity Is the porosity created through alteration of rock.

On the basis of connectivity • Absolute and effective porosity are distinguished by their access capabilities to reservoir fluids Permeable spaces contributes to effective porosity Void spaces contributes to absolute porosity Art-micrograph of sandstone with oil .

■ It also decreases with large variation in grain size as smaller grains occupy the pore spaces between larger grains. • Grain size distribution • Presence and type of cementing materials • Solution and precipitation of salts ■ Porosity decreases with reduction in grain size.Factors effecting the porosity • Relative arrangement of grains • Shape and size of grains. .

Graton & Fraser computed porosities for various packing arrangements and given as :- .Packing Models An attempt to determine the approx. Limits of porosity values. Slichter and. later.

Parallel cylindrical pores Irregular-packed spheres with different radii Regular orthorhombic-packed spheres Regular rhombohedral-packed spheres Regular cubic-packed spheres .

“Regular Cubic-Packed Spheres” Estimation of porosity accounting to this model: .

“Regular Orthorhombic-Packed Spheres” Estimation of porosity accounting to this model: .

“Regular Rhombohedral-Packed Spheres” • Estimation of porosity accounting to this model: .

“Parallel Cylindrical Pores” Estimation of porosity accounting to this model: .

65 1.50 0.40 50 52 29 33 .00 6.54 6.% 0.Porosity Range ROCK TYPE Argillaceous shale Clays Sands Sand stones Carbonates POROSITY RANGE.00 3.

• Measurement of Porosity In situ Surface Well Logs Core Analysis .

• . The results of porosity measurement-by what ever method are .Informatics on porosity measurements • Essential property for intelligent estimate of hydrocarbon reserves and the economic aspect of oil and gas production.cannot exactly correspond to in situ conditions due to: A) Possible relaxation of pores upon release of over burden and fluid pressure B) The hydraulic and mechanical actions of the coring process.

Density.Electrical. • The relationship developed apply only to those surface conditions.In situ techniques • Several logging tools like . . • Resolution is effective around the well bore. Nuclear. or Sonic methods are used to estimare porosity. • Measurements need to be confirmed / calibrated against porosities measured at surface conditions.

►The plugs are first washed and dried. . Its cross section measures about 4 to 12 cm2 and its length is varies between 2 to 5 cm.Core Analysis ► Following equation is used: Φ ► On a sample of generally simple geometric form. ►The standard sample (plug) is cylindrical. two of the three values Vp . Vs and VT are therefore determined. ►The measuring instruments are coupled to microcomputers to process the results rapidly.

and the weight P2 is placed on plate B to bring R in to contact with the mercury.(a) Measurement of the buoyancy exerted by mercury on the sample immersed in it (IFP) The apparatus has a frame C connected by a rod to a float F immersed in a beaker containing mercury. A plate B is suspended from the plate. (b) Second measurement: the sample is placed under the hooks of float F. (a) First measurement: the sample is VT placed on plate B with a weight P1 to bring R in. Measurement of VT . VT Then: APPARATUS A. If ρHg is the density of at measurement temperature. A reference index R is Fixed to the rod.in contact with the mercury.

V (b) Use of positive displacement pump VT Method: Without a sample using the piston.01 cm3. The accuracy is ± 0. mercury is pushed to mark. The measurement is only valid if mercury does not penetrate into the pores. The vernier of the pump is read and the volume VT is obtained. . indicated on the reference valve (V). The vernier of the pump is set at zero. With the sample in place. the mercury is again pushed to same mark.

B. because mercury will penetrate into them. Here a piece of cylindrical core’s diameter “d” and height “h” can be measured using sliding caliper: . Measurement of VT (c) Measurement: The foregoing methods are unsuitable if the rock contains fissures or macro pores.

The difference between the weights of sample in air (P air) and the solvent in which it is immersed (P immersed) gives VS as : . The method is most accurate but difficult and time consuming to achieve complete saturation. The operations are normally VS by immersion method standardized.Measurement of VS Measurement of the buoyancy exerted on the sample by a solvent with which it is saturated.

singe cell or double chamber. .Use of compression chamber and Boyle’ law Regardless of specific apparatus used i.e. The variation in volume and pressure are measured by using Boyle’s law. which was originally at atmospheric pressure. the sample is subjected to known initial pressure by gas. The pressure is then changed by varying the volume of gas in chamber. Measurement of VS P1 V1 = P2 V2 The equipments using single cell and double are shown in next slide.

5 2 6 1 3 1 3 1 is chamber for core 2 is core 3 is volume plunger 4 is pressure guage 2 1 is chamber for core 2 is constant volume chamber 3 is core 4 & 5 is pressure manometers 6 is source of gas .Measurement of VS Use of compression chamber and Boyle’ law Use of single cell 4 Use of double cell 4.

the value of the sample core holder is closed and the air in the interconnected pores is expanded. The variation in volume and pressure are neasured using Boyle’s law. . Determination of VP The pore volume can be measured directly. by measuring the volume of air in the pores. After measuring VT . Measurement of air in the pores : The mercury positive displacement pump is used for this purpose. by weighing a liquid filling the pores. or by mercury injection a.C.

b. The value obtained can be effectively used . Measurement by mercury injection In this case the mercury should never the interconnected pores. . Measurement by weighing a liquid filling the effective pores This liquid is often brine c.

• The total volume is determined by mercury displacement pump. . gives the effective porosity of the sample.Special Method :Fluid Summation • The method involves the analysis of a FRESH sample containing water. for a unit volume of rock. oil and gas. because the core has been invaded by the mud filtrate and decomposed when pulled out. • Still/but the sum of the volumes of these three fluids. • The distribution of these fluids is not the same as in the reservoir.

Special Method : Relation of Fluid Summation and porosity (1) VP = Vw + VO + VG (1) Sw + SO + SG = 100% Sw = Vw/ VP SO = Vo/ VP SG = VG/ VP .

porosity changes/ variationtions. formation anomaly etc. location. In addition to bulk measurements of core porosity . drilling mud invasion. it is also useful to produce porosity images in order to map out details fluids like kind. Example analysis is presented / compared: .What is new • NMR SPECROSCOY By measuring the proton signal strength at time zero compared to proton signal of known standard. * The technique is not applicable to shaly sand stone due to resolution problems.

9 4.7 13.1 12.4 13.4 -0.0 13.3 -4.6 +2.0 16.2 19.7 NMR Porosity 22.NMR SPECROSCOY Rock Sand stone1 Lime stone1 Dolomite1 Dolomite2 Sand stone2 Sand stone3 Weight Porosity 22.6 16.4 18.3 3.8 % Error -1.6 17.8 .9 20.

CT Scan Analysis .

00 1.5 1.2 total 11.6 654. 868.57 1.4 1.55 Avg Radius 1.3 2.0126 psi 2.97 1.309.00 0.Sample I-5-32 Radius(mm) 1.1 1.028.55 Sf T(dyne/cm^2) 72 .9 Capillary pressure 1.09 1.200.2 960.69 496.66 Avg cap pr.107.

Computer Assisted Petrographic Analysis (CAP) .

grain contact statistics. grain shape (angularity). grain perimeter/porosity perimeter measurements Porosity type/size/and distribution.500m 500m Allows petrographer to make quantitative measurements of textural and mineralogic properties Grain size distribution. framework grain and authigenic phase mineralogy and distribution .

composition •Compaction .temperature.VES history •Burial history . time •Cementation . Taylor 1987. Mustang Island. 1998 .Brazos.fluid flow history •Secondary porosity 250 m Allie 1984. Matagorda Island Reservoir Quality Prediction for Sandstones Porosity-Depth Trends Controlling Factors: •Sand texture.

139 ft Mt Tc 3 Mt 3 Mt slumped CORE 1.673. SAND 767 MT? 1000 m Ta-S? ISE.673.00 ft Tb Mt 13. 2002 13.) Mt Ta 3 Tc? Slumped 10.670.00 ft S-Ta? Mt Tc+Mt 3 10.133 ft Tc 10.Tb 1000 m Tc-Td >> Tb & Mt 2 Tc-Mt Tc ( to SMD? Mt > Tc 2 Tc-Tb 1b 3 Mt slumped 13. SAND 571 2 Tc .00 ft .00 ft 13.670.136 ft 2 Ta Tc 10.139 ft MSD (2a.142 ft more abundant mud intraclast content … Ta S CORE 6.00 ft 13.667.00 ft MT? 13.136 ft 10.10.676.

is that developed in the deposition of the material. find the grain density.Conclusions Ф (porosity) is a measure of the storage capacity given as that is capable of holding fluids. Calculate the pore volume and porosity of the sample.6 cm length was found to be 56. If dry weight of the sample is149.88 gms.5” dia and 5.it may be given as Absolute porosity Ratio of the total pore space in the rock to that of the bulk volume Effective porosity Is the percentage of interconnected pore space with respect to the bulk volume original porosity induced porosity Example 1 The grain volume of rock sample of 1.80 cc. Mathematically .24 cc and bulk volume of the sample using mercury displacement method was measured 73. is that developed by some geologic process subsequent to deposition of the rock .

560 Ah. .560 AhФ. bbl Example – 2 An oil reservoir exists at its bubble-point pressure of 3000 psia and temperature of 160°F.758 Ah.25 • Effective porosity = 15% Calculate the initial oil in place in STB. bbl The reservoir pore volume PV in cubic feet gives: PV = 43. ft3 OR 7. The specific gravity of the solution gas is 0. ft3 The reservoir pore volume PV in cubic feet gives: PV = 7. The following additional data are also available • Reservoir area = 640 acres • Average thickness = 10 ft • Connate water saturation = 0. The oil has an API gravity of 42° and gas-oil ratio of 600 scf/STB.65.effective porosity is the value that is used in all reservoir engineering calculations important application of the effective porosity is its use in determining the original hydrocarbon volume in place Application of Effective porosity Determining the original hydrocarbon volume in place For a reservoir with an areal extent of A acres and an average thickness of h feet Bulk volume = 43.758 AhФ.

Determine the specific gravity of the stock-tank oil as 0.% =(Pore volume/Grain volume) x 100 =(17.412.800 (1 .80 – 56.665 gms/cc Example – 2 Step 1. Calculate the initial oil formation volume factor as 1.56 cc *Porosity. Calculate the initial oil in place.88/56.0.998 STB .24 = 2.306 bbl /STB Step 3.276.447.56/73.15) = 7.Example 1 *Pore volume = Bulk volume-Grain volume =73.24=17.80)X100 = 23.25)/1.79% *Grain density=Dry weight of sample/Grain volume = 149.306 = 4. Calculate the pore = 7758 (640) (10) (0.680 bbl Step 4. Initial oil in place = 12.8156 Step 2.

weighted average porosity is used to describe the average reservoir porosity. the areal weighted average or the volume-weighted average porosity is used to characterize the average rock porosity. averaging techniques are expressed mathematically in the following forms: Arithmetic average Thickness-weighted average Areal-weighted average Volumetric-weighted average Example Calculate the arithmetic average and thickness-weighted average from the following measurements Solution .Average reservoir porosity Bedding planes show large variations in porosity vertically and arithmetic average porosity or the thickness . If porosity in one portion of the reservoir to be greatly different from that in another area due to sedimentation conditions.

3 cubic meters ÷ 1.3 .0 cubic meters Porosity = 0.POROSITY ? Porosity = void volume ÷ soil volume Porosity = 0.

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