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Percent means per 100 where cent stands for 100. Percent of a numberto find a percent of a number, convert the percent into a fraction and multiply the resulting fraction with the number. E.g. 60% of 500 = (60/100)* 500=300

Conversion of a fraction or a decimal into a percent- simply multiply fraction or a decimal with 100 to
convert into a percentage.

Converting Percentage into a fraction- a

percentage when divided by 100 is converted into a fraction.

Fraction of a number-

To determine the fraction of a number. We multiply the fraction and the number. Therefore, 1/4th of 20 is ¼ * 20 = 5

Fraction of a fraction & Relative Percentage
To find the fraction of a fraction we multiply both the fractions. For ex, 1/4th of 1/5th = 1/4 * 1/5 = 1/20
Similarly, 25% of 20% is: 25/100 * 20/100 = 5/100 which is nothing but 5% only.

Note: a% of b = b% of a

Q. If mohan invested 40% of his money in shares and lost 25% of remaining in casino. Find the percentage of money left with him.

Q. Arvind spends 40% of his income on petrol, ¼th of remaining on house rent aand balance on food. If he spends Rs 400 on petrol, find his expenditure on house rent.

Q.1) Express 50gm as a percentage of 4kg Q.2) If I score 40% marks, I fail by 10 marks and if score 55%. I score 20 marks too many. What are the total marks and passing marks. Q.3) Of the total amount received by kiran, 20% is spent on purchases and the 5% of the remaining on transportation. If he is left with Rs 1520, the intial amount was…

Q.4) If a is 200% of b. then how much is b of a Q.5) In a party if 80% of invitees come then 40 seats are vacants. If 115% come then 30 persons are standing. Then find the no. of seats

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Consider the calculation when 40 has to be increased by 20% = 40 + 20% of 40 = 40 +(20/100) * 40 = 40 + 8 =48 It could also be done as: = 40 + 20% of 40 = 40 (1+ 20%) = 40 ( 1.20) = 48 Thus 1.20 can be called as multiplying factor corresponding to 20%. The multiplying factor (MF) corresponding to x% increase is nothing but 1+ x/100 and is 1-x/100 for a x% decrease. For ex. Ratio of 48 to 36 is 4/3 or 1.3333 So we can say 48 is 33% more than 36

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The basic problem of this type can be understood with the following exanmple: If salary of A is 20% more than salary of B, then the salary of B is how much percent less than the salary of A? In the data given “ salary of A is 20% more than salary of B”, the comparison (the base) is the salary of B, whereas in the questions “ … percent less than the salary of A”, the comparison (the base) is the salary of A. Also the another point to note is that the difference between the salaries will be same. Now if B’s salary is 100, A’s salary will be 120. Thus salary of B is 20 less than A’s salary and is 20/120 = 1/6 = 16.66% less than A

Thus if A is r% more/ less than B, b is (r/100±r) *100% less/ more than A

If the price of an item goes up/down by x %, the percentage reduction/ increased required to bring it down to the original price is: = {100x / (100±x)} % If the price of an item goes up/ down by x %, then the quantity consumed should be reduced/ increased by {100x /(100 ±x)} % so that the total expenditure remains the same.

If a number is changed (increase/decrease) by a% and in the second step, this changed number is again changed (increase/ decrease0 by b% then Net percent change= a+b+ (a*b)/100 Example: If the price of an item is increased by 20% and then a discount of 10% is given on the increased price, what will be the total % change. Solution: 20-10-(20*10)/100=8%

Q.1) Side of square increases by 16%. By what % its area should increase Q.2) If the price of an item is increased by 20%. By what % its consumption should decrease so as to keep its expenditure constant Q.3) Two numbers are resp. 19% and 70% more than the third no. what % is first of second… Q.4) If the numerator of a fraction is increased by 25% and its denominator in decreased by 20%, then the new fraction is 5/4. Find the orignal fraction. Q.5) if a is 25% more than b then b is how much more or less than a.

Q.6) Arvind spends 75% of his income. His Income is increased by 20% and he increases his expenditure by 10%. His savings are increased by…