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Chapter 13

Welcome to the World of Jackson

1. Emergence of the Ugly American

Politics Changes
Embarrassment to be clean or wealthy Military Hero Not the only politicians, but they were a force Vermont 1791, All adult white males More people understood the government Panic of 1819 & Role of Banks Missouri Compromise Springboards Campaigning Electoral College (Picked by the people) Presidential Nomination Process Changes (1st Convention 1831)

2. Corrupt Bargain
1824 Presidential Election
4 Primary Candidates John Q. Adams, Henry Clay, William Crawford, Andrew Jackson
All Four Belonged to the Republican Party Calhoun V. P. under both Adams & Jackson Jackson won popular vote, but not a majority in the Electoral College, Top Three go to House of Reps. Jackson called for the end of King Caucus Clay in 4th was eliminated, Gave Support to Adams Jackson-Rival in West, Condemned for Florida Adams- Nationalist, Supported Clays American System Crawford- Stroke Victim Clay becomes Secretary of State

3. John Quincy Adams

Good Statesman, Bad Politician
Corrupt Bargain Badgered Him Minority President Anti-Spoils System Transition from Nationalism to Sectionalism Tariff of Abominations 1828 45 % Tariff South Outraged, North voted for it in keep protection, blamed Adams John C. Calhoun wrote South Carolina Exposition Stated a state could rule a law null and void

4. Old Hickory wins

Election of 1828
Revenge for the Corrupt Bargain
Mudslinging in the Election (Jacksons Wife dies) Revolution in terms of politics Jackson a Hero Jackson health issues 1832 First President nominated by a Convention Reputation as a States Rights Politician, but a strong Unionist Veto Crazy, Inauguration was Crazy Spoils System Incompetence

5. Action Jackson
Kitchen Cabinet
Group of Unofficial Advisors

Peggy Eaton Affair (1831)

Wife of Secretary of War John Eaton Questionable Reputation Snubbed by the other wives of cabinet members Caused a rift between Jackson and Calhoun

Maysville Road Veto (1830)

Revenge against Henry Clay

Webster-Hayne Debate (1829-1830)

6. Nullification Controversy
Nullification (South Carolina)
Upset by the Tariff of Abominations Passed New Tariff, but not enough Felt the institution of slavery could be next S.C.- near slave rebellion led by Vesey Threats of Succession Henry Clay put together Compromise Tariff, which passed Congress passed Force Bill- military to get taxes Both sides claimed victory

7. The Wheels on the B.U.S. go round and round

Jackson versus the Bank of the U.S.
Clay attempted to recharter the bank Put Jackson in a bad position for Election of 1832 British minority stockholders Nicholas Biddle- President of the B.U.S. Wildcat Banks Corruption Biddles Bank-Handout to Newspaper for Good Press Important , but misused

8. Election of 1832
Jackson (Democrat) vs. Clay (National Republicans)
Anti-Masonic Party (3rd Party Emerges) All 3 Parties have conventions Party Platforms More money for Natl Republicans Jackson wins Withdrew $ from the BUS to Pet Banks Specie Circular-all lands had to be purchased in West with metallic money

9. Trail of Tears
Westward Expansion All States Settled East of the Mississippi River Pocket of Indians remained in the East, Coveted Land To assimilate or not? Cherokee Indians of Georgia very advanced Part of the Five Civilized Tribes (Creeks, Seminoles, Choctaws & Chickasaws Georgia Legislature ruled the Cherokee Nation illegal, but Supreme Court ruled on side of Cherokees 1830 Indian Removal Act Trail of Tears trip of the Cherokee Indians to Oklahoma Black Hawk War Sauk and Fox Indians (Illinois and Wisconsin)

10. Dont Mess with Texas

Mexican Independence
Stephen Austin Roman Catholic Slaves into Texas from the Southern States, Mexicans had emancipated slaves in 1830 Lone Star Republic 1836 (Sam Houston) Santa Anna Battle of Alamo & Goliad (Mexican victories) Sam Houston Commander in chief of Texas Eventually defeated the Mexicans (San Jacinto)(recognized the Rio Grande River as the S. W. border of Texas

11. 1840 Election

Martin Van Buren (Dem.) vs. W.H. Harrison (Whig) Tippecanoe and Tyler (V.P.) too, Harrison not the best politician, but the best chance to be elected Being a Hick became cool, Ironic because Harrison was loaded This election brought a strong two party system Van Buren, hand-picked by Jackson, had struggled with Panic of 1837 Harrison wins, dies a month later