Module 1

Introduction to Networking
Version 3 1

Internet Connections
• The Internet is the largest data network on earth. • The Internet consists of a multitude of interconnected networks both large and small. • Connection to the Internet can be broken down into the physical connection, the logical connection, and the application.

Version 3

2

Internet Connections
• A physical connection is made by connecting a specialized expansion card such as a modem or a network interface card (NIC) from a computer (PC) to a network. • The physical connection is used to transfer signals between PCs within the local network and to remote devices on the Internet.

Version 3

3

Internet Connections
• The logical connection uses standards called protocols. • A protocol is a formal description of a set of rules and conventions that govern how devices on a network communicate. • Connections to the Internet may use multiple protocols.

Version 3

4

Internet Connections
• The application that interprets the data and displays the information in an understandable form is the last part of the connection. • Applications work with protocols to send and receive data across the Internet. • A web browser displays Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) as a web page. • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is used to download files and programs from the Internet.

Version 3

5

PC Basics
• Computers are important building blocks in a network. • It is important to be able to recognize and name the major components of a PC. • Many networking devices are themselves special purpose computers, with many of the same components as normal PCs.

Version 3

6

PC Components
Small, Discrete Components
• • • • • • Transistor Integrated circuit (IC) Resistor Capacitor Connector Light emitting diode (LED)

Version 3

7

PC Components
Personal Computer Subsystems • Printed circuit board (PCB) • CD-ROM drive • Central processing unit (CPU) • Floppy disk drive • Hard disk drive • Microprocessor • Motherboard • Bus • Random-access memory (RAM) • System unit • Expansion slot • Power supply
Version 3 8

PC Components
Backplane Components
• • • • • • Backplane Network interface card (NIC) Audio card Parallel port Serial port Power cord

Version 3

9

Information Flow
• Information and electric power are constantly flowing in a computer. • Outgoing or exported information flows from RAM and the CPU,  through the bus and expansion slots, to the printer, video card,  sound card, or network card (NIC). 

Version 3

10

Network Interface Card (NIC)
• A network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer. • Also called a LAN adapter, it resides in a slot on the motherboard and provides an interface connection to the network media.

Version 3

11

Network Interface Card (NIC)
When selecting a NIC, consider the following factors: • Protocols – Ethernet, Token Ring, or FDDI • Types of media – Twisted-pair, coaxial, wireless, or fiber-optic • Type of system bus – PCI or ISA

Version 3

12

Modems
• A modem, or modulator-demodulator, is a device that provides the computer with connectivity to a telephone line. • The modem converts (modulates) the data from a digital signal to an analog signal that is compatible with a standard phone line. • The modem at the receiving end demodulates the signal, which converts it back to digital. • Modems may be installed internally or attached externally to the computer using a serial or USB interface.

Version 3

13

Dial-up and High-speed Connectivity
• Standard Modem
– 56 kbps – Each session requires the user to dial-up

• Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
– High-speed connectivity – “Always on” service (no dial-up required) – Does not tie up the phone line

• Cable Modem
– High-speed connectivity – “Always on” service (no dial-up required) – Does not tie up the phone line
Version 3 14

TCP/IP
• Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is a set of protocols or rules developed to allow cooperating computers to share resources across a network.
• To enable TCP/IP on the workstation, it must be configured using the operating system tools.
Version 3 15

Ping
• Ping is a utility used to verify Internet connectivity. • The ping command works by sending multiple IP packets to a specified destination. • Each packet sent is a request for a reply. • The ping command is used to test the NIC transmit/receive function, the TCP/IP configuration, and network connectivity.

Version 3

16

Ping
• The output response for a ping contains the success ratio and round-trip time to the destination. From this information, it is possible to determine if there is connectivity to a destination.

Version 3

17

Types of Ping Tests
• ping 127.0.0.1 - This ping is unique and is called an internal loopback test. It verifies the operation of the TCP/IP stack and NIC transmit/receive function. • ping IP address of host computer - A ping to a host PC verifies the TCP/IP address configuration for the local host and connectivity to the host.

Version 3

18

Types of Ping Tests
• ping default-gateway IP address - A ping to the default gateway verifies whether the router that connects the local network to other networks can be reached. • ping remote destination IP address - A ping to a remote destination verifies connectivity to a remote host.

Version 3

19

Web Browsers
• Two of the most popular web browsers are Internet Explorer (IE) and Netscape Communicator. • A web browser is software that interprets hypertext markup language (HTML). • A web browser performs the following functions:
– Contacts a web server – Requests information – Receives information – Displays the results on the screen

Version 3

20

Web Browsers and Plug-ins
• There are also many special, or proprietary, file types that standard web browsers are not able to display. To view these files the browser must be configured to use the plug-in applications. These applications work in conjunction with the browser to launch the program required to view the following special files:
– Flash – plays multimedia files, which was created by Macromedia Flash – Quicktime – plays video files, which was created by Apple – Real Player – plays audio files

Version 3

21

Binary Representation
• Computers work with and store data using electronic switches that are either ON or OFF. • Computers can only understand and use data that is in this twostate or binary format.
– 1 is represented by an ON state. – 0 is represented by an OFF state

• The 1s and 0s are referred to as binary digits or bits. • A binary 0 might be represented by 0 volts of electricity (0 = 0 volts). • A binary 1 might be represented by +5 volts of electricity (1 = +5 volts).
Version 3 22

Bits & Bytes
• Computers are designed to use groupings of eight bits. • This grouping of eight bits is referred to as a byte. • In a computer, one byte represents a single addressable storage location. • These storage locations represent a value or single character of data. • The total number of combinations of the eight switches being turned on and off is 256. The value range of a byte is from 0 to 255.

Version 3

23

Units of Data Storage
• Bit (b) – binary 1 or 0 • Byte (B) – eight bits • Kilobyte (KB) – 1024 bytes or approximately 1,000 bytes • Megabyte (MB) – approximately 1 million bytes • Gigabyte (GB) – approximately 1 billion bytes • Terabyte (TB) – approximately 1 trillion bytes How many bits are in a Megabyte?

Version 3

24

Number Systems
• Decimal (Base 10)
– uses 10 symbols – 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

• Binary (Base 2)
– uses 2 symbols – 0, 1

• Hexadecimal (Base 16)
– uses 16 symbols – 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F

Version 3

25

Number Systems
10^4 10^3 10^2 10^1 10^0 Decimal 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 4 2 6 426

Base 10

Base 2
2^7 128 2^6 64 2^5 32 2^4 16 1 2^3 8 0 2^2 2^1 2^0 Decimal 4 2 1 0 1 1 19

Base 16
16^4 16^3 16^2 16^1 16^0 Decimal 65,536 4,096 256 16 1 1 2 A 298
Version 3 26

Binary Counting
Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Binary 0 1 10 11 100 101 110 111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 Decimal 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Binary 1101 1110 1111 10000 10001 10010 10011 10100 10101 10110 10111 11000 11001
27

Version 3

Decimal to Binary Conversion
Method 1
Convert the decimal number 192 into a binary number. 192/2 = 96/2 48/2 24/2 12/2 6/2 3/2 1/2 = = = = = = = 96 48 24 12 6 3 1 0 with a remainder of with a remainder of with a remainder of with a remainder of with a remainder of with a remainder of with a remainder of with a remainder of 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

Write down all the remainders, backwards, and you have the binary number 11000000.
Version 3 28

Decimal to Binary Conversion
Method 1
Convert the decimal number 235 into a binary number. 235/2 = 117/2 = 58/2 29/2 14/2 7/2 3/2 1/2 = = = = = = 117 58 29 14 7 3 1 0 with a remainder of with a remainder of with a remainder of with a remainder of with a remainder of with a remainder of with a remainder of with a remainder of 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1

Write down all the remainders, backwards, and you have the binary number 11101011.
Version 3 29

Decimal to Binary Conversion
Method 2
Convert the decimal number 192 into a binary number. First find the largest number that is a power of 2 that you can subtract from the original number. Repeat the process until there is nothing left to subtract. 192-128 = 64 128’s used 1 64-64 = 0 64’s used 1 32’s used 0 16’s used 0 8’s used 0 4’s used 0 2’s used 0 1’s used 0 Write down the 0s & 1s from top to bottom, and you have the binary number 11000000.
Version 3 30

Decimal to Binary Conversion
Method 2
Convert the decimal number 213 into a binary number. First find the largest number that is a power of 2 that you can subtract from the original number. Repeat the process until there is nothing left to subtract. 213-128 = 85 128s used 1 85-64 = 21 64s used 1 *(32 cannot be subtracted from 21) 32s used 0 21-16 = 5 16s used 1 *(8 cannot be subtracted from 5) 8s used 0 5-4 = 1 4s used 1 *(2 cannot be subtracted from 1) 2s used 0 1-1 = 0 1s used 1 Write down the 0s & 1s from top to bottom, and you have the binary number 11010101.
Version 3 31

Binary to Decimal  Conversion
Method 1 From right to left, write the values of the powers of 2 above  each binary number.  Then add up the values where a 1  exist. 27 128 1 26 64 0 25 32 1 24 16 1 23 8 0 22 4 1 21 2 0 20 1 1

128 + 32 + 16 + 4 + 1 = 181
32

Version 3

Binary to Decimal  Conversion
Method 1 From right to left, write the values of the powers of 2 above  each binary number.  Then add up the values where a 1  exist. 27 128 1 26 64 1 25 32 0 24 16 1 23 8 1 22 4 1 21 2 0 20 1 0

128 + 64 + 16 + 8 + 4 = 220
33

Version 3

Binary to Decimal  Conversion
Method 2 •Start from the left with the first 1 in the binary number.  Write  down a 1 below it. •Then look at the next number to the right
• if it is a 0, double the previous number and write it down • if it is a 1, double the previous number and add 1 to it, then write it  down

•Continue this until you reach the last 0 or 1 in the binary  number. •The last number you write down is the decimal equivalent of  the binary number. Binary place value 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Binary number 1 1 0 1 1 3 6 13 Conversion
Version 3 34

Binary to Decimal  Conversion
Method 2 32
Binary place value Binary number Conversion

128

64

16 1 1 16 0 2 16 1 7

8 1 3 8 0 4 8 1 15

4 0 6 4 1 9 4 0 30

2 1 13 2 1 19 2 1 61

1 0 26 1 1 39 1 1 123
35

Binary place value Binary number Conversion Binary place value Binary number Conversion
Version 3

128

64

32 1 1 32 1 3

128

64 1 1

IP Addresses
• Currently, addresses assigned to computers on the Internet are 32-bit binary numbers. • To make it easier to work with these addresses, the 32-bit binary number is broken into a series of decimal numbers. • To do this, split the binary number into four groups of eight binary digits. • Then convert each group of eight bits, also known as an octet into its decimal equivalent.

Version 3

36

IP Addresses
• The complete binary number is represented as four groups of decimal digits separated by periods. • This is referred to as dotted decimal notation.

Version 3

37

Hexadecimal
• Hexadecimal (hex) is used frequently when working with computers since it can be used to represent binary numbers in a more readable form. • The computer performs computations in binary, but there are several instances when the binary output of a computer is expressed in hexadecimal to make it easier to read. Binary number 11101011001110 Hexadecimal number 3ACE
Version 3 38

Hexadecimal to Decimal  Conversion
Base 16
16^4 16^3 16^2 16^1 16^0 Decimal 65,536 4,096 256 16 1 1 2 A 298

•Each number place represents a power of 16 •Given the hexadecimal number 12A • 1 X 256 = 256 • 2 X 16   =   32 • A X 1     = +10    (A = 10 in hex)    298
Version 3 39

Hexadecimal to Binary  Conversion
To convert a hex number to a binary number, each hex bit  represents 4 binary digits
Given the hex number  A 3 A is the decimal number 10 10 in binary is  1 0 1 0 8  4  2  1  (binary number places ­ 4 bits) 1  0  1  0 3 is the decimal number 3 3 in binary is  0 0 1 1 8  4  2  1 (binary number places ­ 4 bits) 0  0  1  1 hex  
Version 3

A 3 = 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1  in binary
40

Binary to Hexadecimal Conversion
•Now that you have seen how to convert hexadecimal to binary,  how could you convert from binary to hexadecimal?
•Convert the following binary numbers to hexadecimal:      101110101101      100100101111           1011010011

Version 3

41

Boolean Logic
•Boolean logic is a binary logic that allows two numbers to be compared and a choice generated based on the two numbers. •These choices are the logical AND, OR and NOT. •Computers are built from various types of electronic circuits. •These circuits depend on what are called AND, OR, and NOT logic "gates." •These gates are characterized by how they respond to input signals.

Version 3

42

Boolean Logic – AND 
•The AND operation takes two input values. •If both are 1, the logic gate generates a 1 output. Otherwise it outputs a 0. •There are four combinations of input values. •Three of these combinations generate a 0, and one combination generates a 1.

Version 3

43

Boolean Logic – OR 
•The OR operation also takes two input values. •If at least one of the input values is 1, the output value is 1. •Again there are four combinations of input values. •This time three combinations generate a 1 output and the fourth generates a 0 output.

Version 3

44

Boolean Logic – NOT 
•The NOT operation takes whatever value is presented, 0 or 1, and inverts it. •A one becomes a zero and a zero becomes a one. •The logic rule that they follow is whatever the input is, the output is the opposite.

Version 3

45

IP Addresses and Network Masks
•When IP addresses are assigned to computers, some of the bits on the left side of the 32-bit IP number represent a network. •The number of bits designated depends on the address class. •The bits left over in the 32-bit IP address identify a particular computer on the network. •A computer is referred to as the host.

Version 3

46

IP Addresses and Network Masks
•The IP address of a computer consists of a network and a host part that represents a particular computer on a particular network.

Version 3

47

IP Addresses and Network Masks
•To inform a computer how the 32-bit IP address has been split, a second 32-bit number called a subnetwork mask is used. •This mask is a guide that indicates how the IP address should be interpreted by identifying how many of the bits are used to identify the network of the computer. •A subnet mask will always be all 1s until the network address is identified and then be all 0s from there to the right most bit of the mask.

Version 3

48

IP Addresses and Network Masks
•Some examples of subnet masks are:
– 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 written in dotted decimal as 255.0.0.0

or
– 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 written in dotted decimal as 255.255.0.0

or
– 11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000 written in dotted decimal as 255.255.255.192

Version 3

49

IP Addresses and Network Masks
•Performing a Boolean AND of the IP address 10.34.23.134 and the subnet mask 255.0.0.0 produces the network address of this host: 00001010.00100010.00010111.10000110 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 00001010.00000000.00000000.00000000 •Converting the result to dotted decimal, 10.0.0.0 is the network portion of the IP address, when using the 255.0.0.0 mask.

Version 3

50

IP Addresses and Network Masks
•Given the following information, determine the network and host portion of the IP address:
– IP address: 192.32.224.8 – Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0

•Given the following information, determine the network and host portion of the IP address:
– IP address: 224.48.130.34 – Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.192

Version 3

51

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful