Module 6

Routing & Routing Protocols
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Routing
• The process that a router uses to forward packets toward the destination network. • A router makes this decision based on the destination IP address • If dynamic routing is used, routers have to learn routes from other routers. • If static routing is used, the administrator configures this information into the router manually
– So, you might say that updates to a routing table are made by the administrator.
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Configuring Static Routes with Outgoing Interface

Outgoing interface Administrative distance of 1 default
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Configuring Static Routes with Next-hop IP Address

Next hop interface Administrative distance of 1 default
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Configuring Static Routes
• An administrator actually enters static routes into the routing table. • That makes them static route entries – because the router is not “discovering” those routes. • If for some reason that outgoing interface goes down or is not available for some reason, then at that time the route will be removed from the routing table. show ip route shows the routing table. The route would still be in the configuration (because it was entered globally), but that route could now no longer be used by the router because the interface it refers to is down for some reason.
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Administrative Distance
• What is the default for a outgoing interface? • What is the default for the next-hop address? • Defaults can always be changed. • Just make it higher if you want it to be a “backup” route (lower numbers are preferred)
ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 192.188.4.1 120

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S0 192.168.2.1/24

S0 192.168.4.1/24

Router A

Router B
S1 192.168.2.2/24

Router C
S1 192.168.4.2/24

192.168.1.0/24

192.168.3.0/24

192.168.5.0/24

What would you enter to configure a static route from Router C to the LAN on Router A using outgoing interface? The LAN on Router B from Router A using next-hop?
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Static Default Routes
• A router should be configured with a special type of static route – a default route. • This default route routes packets with destinations that do not match any of the other routes in the routing table • It is a “gateway of last resort” that allows the router to forward “destination unknown” packets out a particular interface ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 [next-hop-address | outgoing interface]
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Default Route on non-directly connected networks

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Verifying a Default Route
• To verify a default route, use the following commands: – show run to make sure you typed it in correctly – show ip route to make sure the router placed it in the routing table.

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Examine the show ip route Command

[Administrative distance / Hop count]

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Troubleshooting static route configuration
• Ping and traceroute should be used to test basic connectivity. • But before using ping and traceroute, it is a good idea just to see if the physical interface is “up”.

show show show show
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interfaces interface s0 interface s1 ip interface brief
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Routed VS. Routing
• Routed protocols are protocols that are routed over an Internetwork (IP, AppleTalk, IPX) Routing protocols use algorithms to route routed protocols through the Internetwork (RIP, IGRP, OSPF)

•Routed protocols are used BETWEEN routers to direct traffic •Routing protocols allow routers to share information about known networks with other networks (their purpose)
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Routing Protocol and Autonomous System
• An autonomous system (AS) is a collection of networks under a common administration sharing a common routing strategy. • The goal of a routing protocol is to build and maintain the routing table. • A routers learns about routes to a network by: – Gathering information from its own configuration regarding directly connected networks. – Other routers forward information about known networks. – Manually entered routes by a network administrator.
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Convergence
• When all routers in an Internetwork are operating with the same knowledge, the Internetwork is said to have converged. • Fast convergence is desirable because it reduces the period of time in which routers would continue to make incorrect routing decisions. • In routers that use dynamic routing protocols, it is important to have fast convergence because routers could make incorrect forwarding decisions until the network has fully converged. • A network has converged when the routers in the network are operating with consistent routing knowledge.
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S0

S0

Router A
E0 S1

Router B
E0 S1

Router C
E0

192.168.1.0/24

192.168.3.0/24

192.168.5.0/24

The routing table on these routers would be changed if something happened to the links BETWEEN the routers (a serial interface goes down for some reason). Anything that happens to the Ethernet interfaces would not affect the routing tables. Routing takes place between routers.
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Distance Vector Routing

Neighbor to neighbor ONLY

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Distance Vector Routing

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Topology Changes (distance vector)
Routing table updates take place when the topology changes. Router to router (neighbor tells neighbor) Distance vector – each router sends its entire routing table to neighbor table

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Link-state Routing
• Shortest Path First (SPF) • Flood routing information about it’s OWN links • Analyze incoming routing update messages • If the message indicates that a network change has occurred, the routing software recalculates routes and sends out new routing update messages • These messages permeate the network, stimulating routers to rerun their algorithms and change their routing tables accordingly. • After the initial flood, it passes small eventtriggered updates to all other routers
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In Order to Converge, a Router in a LinkState network must:
• Remember its neighbor’s name, when it’s link is up or down (status), and the cost of the path to that router. • Create an LSP (link-state packet) that lists its neighbor’s name and relative costs. • Send the newly created LSP to all other routers participating in the link-state network. • Receive LSPs from other routers and update its own database. (Particularly when there are changes in the network) • Build a complete map of the Internetwork’s topology from all the LSPs received, then compute the best route to each network destination.
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Link-State Concerns
• Processor overhead • Memory requirements (use more router resources initially when flooding info) • Bandwidth Consumption on initial flood

All of these are considerations when selecting a routing protocol to be used over an enterprise network.

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The Routing Process
192.168.1.56 01-00-A5-C3-26-6B

• The protocol address (IP) always remains the same.
192.168.1.56 34-7E-33-12-C9-20

192.168.1.56 6A-5F-0D-09-8B-AA

192.168.1.56 BC-48-03-8F-FF-AA

• The physical address (MAC) changes at each hop.
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Routing Decisions
• The router uses the network portion of the address to choose the best path • Router “switches” the packet to the best port for forwarding using path determination

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Configuring a Router to Route
1. Specify routing protocol
Router(config)#router rip or Router(config)#router igrp 200

2. Next, use the network command to tell the router which networks are directly connected to it.
Router(config-router)#network 192.10.10.0 Router(config-router)#network 192.10.5.0

Notice that these network numbers are major networks, not subnets.
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Routing Protocols
• RIP – Distance vector – Uses hop count as its only metric (15) – Broadcasts routing updates every 30 seconds • IGRP – Proprietary to Cisco, still a distance vector protocol – Uses bandwidth, load, reliability, & delay as its metrics – Broadcasts routing updates every 90 seconds • EIGRP – Cisco’s advanced distance vector interior routing protocol – Uses some distance vector and some link-state principles

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Routing Protocols
• OSPF (initially advertisements are flooded) – Link-state routing protocol – Routing updates occur when there are topology changes – All routers in a OSPF domain would then adjust their routes • BGP – A distance vector exterior routing protocol – Routes traffic between 2 autonomous systems

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Border Gateway Protocol & Autonomous Systems

Autonomous systems have an identifying number, which is assigned to it by the American Registry of Internet Numbers (ARIN) or a provider. This autonomous system number is a 16-bit number.
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