# mass – A measure of the amount of matter in an object. The mass of an object is related to the force required to accelerate it.

acceleration/force – the more force you apply, the greater the acceleration

Click on the picture for some great questions about acceleration and force!

acceleration/mass – the greater the mass, the more force necessary to get an object to accelerate

Click on the picture!

balanced forces – when all the forces on an object cancel each other out, you have balanced forces – no acceleration, no momentum

Click on the picture for some great questions about balanced and unbalanced forces.

unbalanced forces – when forces don’t cancel each other out, there is movement. This is a result of unbalanced forces.

Click on the picture for some information about unbalanced forces.

Click on the picture for some information about kinds of forces.

Unit: 3 FORCE Effects of forces .

• Force simply as a push and pull.Force • The environment affects a body by exerting forces on it. .

Force • Force is the effect of pull and push. Boy exerts a pull on the rope Boy exerts a push on the boat .

N -1 – 1 N = 1 kg x 1 ms .SI unit of force • SI Unit of force – newton .

Effects of Force Force can  change the shape and size of an object .

 Decreasing speed or decelerating a body.e.Effects of Force Force can change the motion of the body by:  Moving a stationary body.  Increasing speed or accelerating a body.stop a body) .(i.

.Effects of Force Force can • Change the direction of motion of an object.

Newton’s law 2nd Law of Motion .

. and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.The Second Law The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to and in the same direction as the resultant force acting on it.

a  F and a  1/m Hence.2nd Law • Thus.  F/m  F  ma F = ma If m = 1 kg. a = 1 ms-2 F = 1 kg x 1 ms-2 = 1 N .

mu) / t is the rate of change of momentum • Therefore. .2nd Law • Since F = ma = m(v-u)/t • as (mass x velocity) = momentum and (mv . 2rd Law can be stated as The rate of change of the momentum of an object is equal to the unbalanced force applied to it. The direction of momentum takes place in the direction of the force.

.2nd Law F = ma 1 Newton is a force which causes a mass of 1 kilogram to have an acceleration of 1 ms-2.

 The influence of the environment is the net force. and the strength of the response is the inversely proportional to the mass. the body’s response is the acceleration. a. m. F. .Simple illustration of 2nd Law  The second law is really a description of how a body responds mechanically to its environment.

4 ms-2 2. A horizontal force of 5 N was applied to a block of mass 2 kg resting on a frictionless table.5 ms-2 10 ms-2 25 ms-2 Hint: F =ma B .Nov 1991 1. What was the acceleration of the block? A B C D 0.

4 ms-2 2.0 ms-2 B .5 ms-2 10.0 ms-2 25. What was the acceleration of the block ? A B C D 0. resting on a frictionless table.GCE O Nov 1994 2. A horizontal force of 5 N was applied to a block of mass 2 kg.

Nov 1998 3. What is the acceleration of the block? A B C D 0. resting on a frictionless table.0 ms-2 6. A horizontal force of 8 N is applied to to a block of mass 2 kg.0 ms-2 16 ms-2 Hint: F = ma B .25 ms-2 4.

. F m=— a A force of 1 newton (1N) is that resultant force that will give a 1-kg mass an acceleration of 1 m/s2.Observations The acceleration of the given body is directly proportional to the applied force. This means that the ratio of the acceleration is always constant. This ratio is the property of the body called mass. F1 F2 F3 — = — = — = constant a1 a2 a 3 The constant is a measure of how effective is the given force in producing acceleration. The newton (N) is the SI unit of force.

respectively. 2.Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion Applying a constant force of 12 N in succession to 1-.and 3-kg masses will produce accelerations of 12 m/s2. F 12N a = —— = —— = 12 m/s2 m1 1kg F 12N 2 a = —— = —— = 6 m/s m2 2 kg F 12N a = —— = —— = 4 m/s2 m3 3kg . 6 m/s2 and 4m/s2.

448 N 1 slug = 14.59 kg . it produces in the direction of the force an acceleration that is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the body.‖ Fnet = ma ΣF = + F1 + F2 + F3 + … Force (N) = mass (kg) x acceleration (m/s2) Force (lb) = mass (slug) x acceleration (ft/s2) 1 lb = 4.Newton’s Second Law of Motion: ―Whenever an unbalanced force acts on a body.

What force is required to give the wagon an acceleration of 2 m/s2? F 60N m = —— = ——— = 6 kg 2 a 10m/s F = ma = (6kg)(2 F = 12 N 2 m/s ) .Illustrative Example 2 It is determined that a resultant force of 60 N will give a wagon an acceleration of 10 m/s2.

9 m/s Δt = 3.Illustrative Example 3 A 1000kg car moving north at 100 km/h brakes to a stop in 50 m.6 s a = – 7. What are the magnitude and direction of the force? Given: m = 1000kg. vf = 0 Find: Fnet = ? Formula: Fnet = ma vf – vi a = ——— Δt a= 0 – 27.6 s ΔX 50 m Δt = —— = ———— v 13.8 m/s ———— 3.72 m/s2 .8 m/s. vi = 100 km/h = 27.

F = ma = (1000kg)(.7. South Therefore.8m/s2) English: W(lb) = m(slug) x g(32 ft/s2) . we can summarize as follows: SI: W(N) = mkg) x g(9.72 2 m/s ) F = 7720 N.

(3)The acceleration of gravity has the same units as acceleration. (2)Weight has the same units as the unit of force. W = mg or W m = —— g (1)The mass of a particle is equal to its weight divided by the acceleration due to gravity. WEIGHT is the force of gravitational attraction and varies depending of the acceleration due to gravity.Relationship Between Mass and Weight MASS is a universal constant equal to the ratio of the body’s weight to the gravitational acceleration due to gravity. .

9 slug W = mg = (7slug)(32 m/s2)= 224 lb .08 kg m = F/g = (60lb)/(32 ft/s2)= 1.Illustrative Examples What is the weight of a 4.8 m/s2)= 47N m = F/g = (40N)/(9.8kg)(9.8-kg mailbox? What is the mass of a 40-N tank? What is the mass of a 60-lb child? What is the weight of a 7-slug man? W = mg = (4.8 m/s2)= 4.

If this mass were taken to a distant planet where g = 2. what would be its weight on that planet? Given: WE = 100N.0 m/s2.80 m/s2 gP = 2.0 m/s2 Find: WP = ? .Illustrative Example 2 Find the weight of the body whose weight on Earth is 100 N. gE = 9.

4 N Ans.: a = 1.63 m/s2.2 kg Weight on the planet: WP = mgP = (10.Solution Mass on Earth: m= WE —— gE = 100 N ———— 9.80 m/s2 = 10.2 kg)(2 m/s2) WP = 20.6 kg on both places . m = 81.

and what is her mass on the Moon? On the Earth? . she weighs only 133 N.Try this! A woman weighs 800 N on Earth. When she walks on the moon. What is the acceleration due to gravity on the Moon.

0-kg box is pushed by two boys with forces of 15. A ball is accelerated from rest at a rate of 1. What is the mass of the ball? Solution 2.20 m/s2 after a force of 20. what is the magnitude and direction of the acceleration? Solution .Practice Exercise (p.0 toward the right. A 15.0 n is applied.0 N and 18. If the forces in number 2 are applied opposite each other. What is the magnitude and direction of the acceleration of the box? Solution 3.61-62) 1.

7 kg 2 1. What is the mass of the ball? Given: Fnet = 20.20m/s2 Find: m = ? F = ma 20.Solution: 1.0 N.20 m/s a . A ball is accelerated from rest at a rate of 1.0 N F m = —— = ————— = 16.20 m/s2 after a force of 20.0 n is applied. a = 1.

0 N. A 15.0 N a = —— = ———————— m 15.0 N Find: a = ? Fnet = F1 + F2 = ma Fnet 15.0 N and 18.0 kg a = 2.0 kg. F1 = +15.Solution: 2.0 N + 18. What is the magnitude and direction of the acceleration of the box? Given: m = 15.20 m/s2 .0 toward the right. F2 = +18.0kg box is pushed by two boys with forces of 15.

What is the magnitude and direction of the acceleration of the box? Given: m = 15.0 toward the right.0 kg.0kg box is pushed by two boys with forces of 15.0 N + 18.Solution: 2.0 N a = —— = ———————— m 15. A 15.53 m/s2 to the right . F2 = +18.0 N and 18.0 N Find: a = ? Fnet = F1 + F2 = ma Fnet 15.0 kg a = 1.0 N. F1 = +15.

0 N Find: a = ? Fnet = F1 + F2 = ma Fnet 15.0 kg.0 N a = —— = ———————— m 15.2 m/s2 to the left . If the forces in number 2 are applied opposite each other.0 kg a = 0.0 N .18. F1 = +15. what is the magnitude and direction of the acceleration? Given: m = 15.0 N. F2 = -18.Solution: 3.

The Atwood Machine T a T T T m m mg a M Mg M .

Ma Eq.mg = (M + m)a a = ——— g M+m .T = Ma For mass m: T – mg = ma T m a M a Mg Eq.1 & eq. 1 Mg .T The Atwood Machine For mass M: T – Mg = . 2 mg M–m Conbining eq. 2: Mg .T = Ma + T – mg = ma Mg .

0-kg body and a 5.Example: Atwood Machine • A 2.0 kg T 5.0 kg a . (a) What is the acceleration of the system? (b) What is a the tension on the cord? T 2.0-kg body are each suspended at the end of a cord that passes over a frictionless pulley.

00-kg hanging block pulls a 3. Calculate for the acceleration of the system and the tension on the cord. m2 .Vertical and horizontal problems m1 A 2.00-kg block along a frictionless table.

2 .w2 = -m2a or w2 – T = m2a .eq.Vertical and horizontal problems m1 m1 T T T T a m2 a Fnet = T = m1a .1 m2 w2 Fnet = T.eq.

T = m1a w2 – T = m2a ---. thus similar rate of motion for both.Since the blocks are connected by a single cord. the tension T of the cord for both blocks is the same.Eq. 1 ---.Eq. 2 Combining the 2 equations gives: w2 = m1a + m2a w2 = (m1 + m2)a w2 a = ——————— (m1 + m2) Working equation .

For acceleration: w2 a = ——————— (m1 + m2) a = ——————— (3.1 T = m1a = (3.92m/s2)= 11.8 N Another Example .0 kg + 2.00kg)(9.0 kg)(3.0 kg) (2.80 m/s2) a = 3.92 m/s2 For the tension: from eq.

The cord passes over a pulley at the edge of the table and at the free end. Find the acceleration of the system and the tension on the cord. a 10-g mass is hung. 100 g 10 g .Example: Horizontal and Vertical motion • A 100-g mass lies on a frictionless table and a cord is attached to it.

Solution The acceleration: The tension: Isolating the 10-g mass. The unbalanced force F = (9800 – T)dynes. Find the acceleration of the system and the tension on the cord.1 cm/s2 T = 9800dy – 891dy T = 8910 dynes .1cm/s2) a = 89. a 10-g mass is hung. Applying the second law: w2 a = —————— (m1 + m2) 10g (980cm/s2) a = ———————— F = ma (100g + 10g) 9800-T = 10g(89. The cord passes over a pulley at the edge of the table and at the free end.• A 100-g mass lies on a frictionless table and a cord is attached to it. the tension T acts upward and the acceleration downward.

Vertical and horizontal problems T2 m1 T1 T2 m2 T1 m3 If a 100-g counter weight is attached on the left side of m1 which is 300 g. what would be the acceleration of the system and the tensions on the left and right cords? . and a 200-g mass on the right.

Free-body Diagrams T2 T2 m2 m1 T1 m1 = 300 g m2 = 100g m3 = 200 g Fnet = T1 – T2 = m1a T1 a w3 a m3 Fnet = T2 – W2 = m2a Fnet = T1 – W3 = -m3a w3 .

Combining the 3 equations yields: T1 – T2 = m1a + T2 – W2 = m2a + Fnet1 = T1 – T2 = m1a Fnet2 = T2 – W2 = m2a Fnet3 = T1 – W3 = -m3a W3 – T1 = m3a W3 – W2 = (m1 + m2 + m3)a a = —————— m1 + m2 + m3 W3 – W2 Working equation .

8m/s2) – (0.8m/s2) a = 1.a = ————— m1 + m2 + m3 W3 – W2 m1 = 300 g m2 = 100g m3 = 200 g = ————————————— 0.63 2 m/s .1kg)(9.1 kg (0.2 kg + 0.2kg)(9.3 kg + 0.

3 For Tensions.T1 – T2 = m1a –Eq.2kg(9.8m/s2 – 1.63m/s2) T1 = 1. T1 and T2 m1 = 300 g m2 = 100g m3 = 200 g Using Equation 3 W3 – T1 = m3a m3g – T1 = m3a T1 = m3g – m3a T1 = m3(g – a) T1 = 0.2 W3 – T1 = m3a –Eq.63 N .1 T2 – W2 = m2a –Eq.

Using Equation 2 T2 – W2 = m2a T2 – m2g = m2a T2 = m2a + m2g T2 = m2(g – a) T2 = 0.63m/s2) T2 = 1.1kg(9.8m/s2 + 1.14 N .

3kg(1.63N – T2 = 0.63N – T2 = 0.63m/s2) 1.489 N T2 = 1.63 N T2 = 1.14 N .Using Equation 1 T1 – T2 = m1a 1.63N – 0.489 N T1 = 1.

2 m/s2 .8m/s2) 5kg + 2kg 5kg – 2kg a = 4.Solution a = ——— g M+m M–m a = ————— (9.

6 N = 29.4 N / 7kg = 4.8m/s2) – 2kg(9.2 m/s2 .Another Solution F = ma Unbalanced force F: F = W2 + W1 = 5kg(9.4N The moving masses: m = 2kg + 5kg = 7kg a w1 w2 The acceleration: F = ma 29.4N = 7kg (a) a = 29.0 kg = 49 N – 19.8m/s2) T a 2.0 kg T 5.

We can isolate it as shown in the free-body diagram on the right. T a 2.2 m/s2.0 kg F = ma T – 19.6N = (2. The acceleration is 4.Solution: The tension on the cord Consider the 2.4 N + 19.0 N . Let T be the tension on the cord.6 N = 28.0kg)(4.0-kg body as the moving part of the system.2m/s2) T = 8. The unbalanced force is T – W1.