Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

Literature Review
Rahul Kala
April, 2013 School of Systems, Engineering, University of Reading rkala.99k.org

Organization

Literature Review

Intelligent Vehicles

Mobile Robotics

Intelligent Transportation Systems

Optimization – based

RRT and Related

Graph Search, Roadmap, Hierarchical

Reactive

Routing and Congestion Avoidance

Start Time Prediction

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Trajectory Planning
Current Intelligent Vehicles algorithms cannot be used as:

• Lane prone
• Simple obstacle frameworks • Non-cooperative Current Mobile Robotics algorithms cannot be used as: • Narrowly bounded roads

• Road structure
• Overtaking and Vehicle Following behaviours • Unknown time of emergence
Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles rkala.99k.org

Intelligent Management of the Transportation System
Key sub-problems:

• Routing
• Congestion Avoidance • Start Time Prediction Key modelling differences from the literature • Diversity: Speed based and task based

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Intelligent Vehicles
Key Approaches RRT Delaunay Triangles Elastic Bands Cooperative overtaking Lane change decision making Overtaking trajectory Overtaking decision making Static obstacle avoidance Static obstacle avoidance in a structured environment Static obstacle avoidance, following a vehicle Optimization based overtaking model Decide the lane of travel Lane change trajectories to overtake Whether to overtake or not, probabilistic decision making
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Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

Optimization based
Methods Genetic Algorithm, Swarm Algorithm and Variants Multi-Resolution Pre-computation Optimizing trajectory Coarser optimization at the start and finer at the end Database of common situationbased trajectories

Variations
• Centralized • Decentralized

• Cooperative Co-evolution
Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles rkala.99k.org

RRT and Related
Methods Multiple instance based Generalized sampling Run multiple times and combine the results, attempt to get global optimality RRT expansion using vehicle’s control model

Heuristics in RRT generation Guide RRT expansion through/towards the best areas or goal Retraction based RRT Solution to the narrow corridor problem

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Graph Search, Roadmap and Hierarchical
Method

Multi-Layer Planning

Map represented in multiple granularities which the algorithm operates
One algorithm for coarser level, whose output calls another algorithm for finer level Multiple agents at different locations build partial maps which are integrated Sampled roadmap adapts to the change in environment

2-Layer Planning

Distributed roadmap building Adaptive roadmaps

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Reactive Methods
• Distance maximization based

• Logic set based
• Velocity Obstacles • Potential Methods

• Fuzzy based

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Routing and Congestion Avoidance
Methods

Anticipatory Systems
Digital Pheromone

Congestion is anticipated and preventive measures are taken
Pheromone left at roads while the vehicle moves, indicates the number of vehicles and hence the congestion Reserve a road, lane, intersection Road network map seen as multiple connected communities/sub-areas

Reservation Hierarchical Planning

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

Start Time Prediction
Methods

Markovian Process

Travel Time Prediction Stochastic Graph Search

Road network map modelled as a markovian process and searched Extrapolate recorded data to get future snapshot Probabilistic search across all possible routes

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

• Acknowledgements: • Commonwealth Scholarship Commission in the United Kingdom • British Council

Thank You
Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles rkala.99k.org

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