Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

Genetic Algorithm
Presentation of the paper: R. Kala, K. Warwick (2014) Heuristic based evolution for the coordination of autonomous vehicles in the absence of speed lanes, Applied Soft Computing, 19: 387–402.
April, 2013

Rahul Kala
rkala.99k.org

School of Systems, Engineering, University of Reading

Key Contributions
• The design of a GA which gives results within low computational times for traffic scenarios. • Employment of the developed GA for constant path adaptation to overcome actuation uncertainties. The GA assesses the current scenario and takes the best measures for rapid trajectory generation. • The use of traffic rules as heuristics to coordinate between vehicles. • The use of heuristics for constant adaptation of the plan to favour overtaking, once initiated, but to cancel it whenever infeasible. • The approach is tested for a number of diverse behaviours including obstacle avoidance, blockage, overtaking and vehicle following.

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

Why GA?
• Optimality

• Probabilistic Completeness
• Iterative

Concerns
• Computational Cost • Cooperative Coordination

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

Key Concepts
• Use Road Coordinate Axis system • Optimize as the vehicle moves:
– Tune plan – Overcome uncertainties – Compute feasibility of overtake

• Integration with route planning
– Next road/segment becomes the goal as the vehicle is about to complete the previous

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

Map

For each vehicle entered in scenario and not reached goal Planning by Dijkstra’s Algorithm if coarser path is not built Finer Planning by Bezier Curves Genetic Algorithm Optimization

Overall Algorithm

Blockage?

Database of all Vehicle Trajectories No

Yes

Operational Mode

Path Following

Overtaking

Vehicle Following

Steering and Speed Control

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

GA Optimization

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

Individual Representation
Genotype
Y’

X’

Y’ Mapping

Control points

Source

Directional maintenance points Phenotype

Goal Trajectory

The genotype (optimized by GA) stores all control points of the spline curve
Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles rkala.99k.org

Genetic Operators

Repair
Insert Crossover

• Sorts points in X’ axis (vehicle always drives forward) • Deletes points behind the crossed position • Deletes excess control points till trajectory gets better

• Add random individuals

• For variable length chromosome

Mutation

• Randomly deviate points

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Fitness Function
Contributors

• Length
• Length of trajectory in without safety distance • Length in infeasible region

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Checking Granularity
Points of checking Finer at start

Trajectory

Coarser at the end
Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles rkala.99k.org

Coordination
• Priority based coordination

• Only vehicles ahead considered
• Cooperation added by traffic heuristics
– Overtake – Vehicle Following

• Vehicle can request another vehicle to
– Slow down – Turn right/left

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Determination of speed
Path Optimization: GA Speed Optimization

Alternating optimization of path and speed

Genetic Algorithm
Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

Increase by δ if feasible Decrease by δ if infeasible
rkala.99k.org

Traffic Heuristics
• Two heuristics used: Overtaking and Vehicle Following • Imparts cooperation to an else non-cooperative coordination

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Traffic Heuristics
Give initial turns to the other vehicles to best overtake

Overtaking

Alter speeds of the other vehicles to best overtake
Cancel overtake if it seems dangerous Give initial turns to the other vehicles to best overtake

Assess Situation Vehicle Following

Alter speeds of the other vehicles to best overtake Initiate overtake if it seems possible

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

Overtaking
Move Left R2 Move Left Move Left R2 Move Left R1 R3 R1 R3

R2

R2 R3 R1 R3

R1

R2 R1 R3

R2

R1 R3

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Overtaking
Too close, R2 slows R2 R1 R3 R1 R2 Too close, R3 slows

R3

Not possible, abandon

Not possible, abandon R2 R3 R1 R3

R2
R1

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Vehicle Following
Move Left Move Left

R2
R1 R3

R1

R2

R3 R2 R1 R3 Feasible, speed up

Infeasible, slow down

Move Left

Infeasible, slow down

R1

R2
R3 R2 R3 R1 R3 R2 R1

Move Left

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

Results

Vehicle position at the time of blockage

Blockage

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

b

Results - 2 vehicle

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Results - Overtaking

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Results – Vehicle Following

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Analysis
960 940 920 900 880 860 840 820 800 780 760 6 11 16 21 Speed 26 31 36

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

Distance

rkala.99k.org

Analysis
160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 6 11 16 21 26 Speed 31 36

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

Time

rkala.99k.org

Analysis
900
898

896
Distance 894 892 890 888 886 884 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Number of Individuals

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Analysis
160
Minimum Individuals for Feasible Solution 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

Road Coordinate Axis System Cartesian Coordinate Axis System

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 Number of Obstacles 6 7 8

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

• Acknowledgements: • Commonwealth Scholarship Commission in the United Kingdom • British Council

Thank You
Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles rkala.99k.org

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