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Meeting the Needs of Children and Families


Child with severe Vision Impairment

Prepared by:
Mst Roma Akter Student ID# 300672640 Course: ECEP- 233-002 Instructor: Chris Cadieux Date: March 11, 2014


Meet Laila Laila is a 15 month old infant She has been diagnosed with severe vision impairment Her parents are very concerned and upset They worry about her safety How Laila will form friendships They are new to the city of Toronto Expecting their second child They ask me about services in the area

What is Severe Vision Impairment?

A visual impairment is the consequence of a functional loss of vision. A visual impairment occurs when any part of the optical system is defective, diseased, or malfunctions. The visual impairment is the result of a defective part, it is usually present at birth . The eye specialist ophthalmologist/optometrist) is qualified to identify or diagnose these problems. A visual impairment can also occur when the central nervous system is damaged.

How Does Vision Work?

Vision is composed of eyes, eye muscles, optic nerve) and the perceptual system (brain) Optical component collects visual stimuli and sends them to the brain The brain builds a collection of images Light rays pass through the cornea Then focused on the macular area of the retina The retina then begins the sorting process and sends the images through the optic nerve to the brain Any defect or malfunction at any stage of the visual process can result in impaired vision.

How Does Vision Work?

Vision Chart: The reflections of Lailas Vision

1 month: 2 months
Normal Visual development follows moving object to midline; regards faces eyes fixate, converge, and focus; follows vertical movements; prefers faces to complex patterns; attends to objects up to 6 feet away; becomes aware of bright lights (stares) and colors (yellow, orange red) eye movements become smoother; glances at I " object; anticipates feeding via visual stimulus hand regard (15 weeks); eyes begin to shift focus; recognizes familiar faces (smiles); visually explores new environment; follows objects past midline; capable of horizontal, vertical, circular eye movements, though may still be somewhat uncoordinated; unsuccessful reach for dangling object; regards object in hand, and mouths

3 months 4 months:

5 months:
6 months

eye-hand coordination developed and successful; gazes at objects close to eyes; can fixate at 3' and then shift gaze to near point
eye movements coordinated and smooth; shifts visual attention easily; recognizes faces up to 6' away; form discrimination emerges; transfers object from hand to hand with visual monitoring; may anticipate position of falling object; fixates where object has disappeared; acuity approximately 20/200 manipulates objects; acuity near normal; depth perception developing turns object in hand and explores visually can see tiny (2-3nim) objects nearby; observes facial expressions and tries to imitate; looks for object seen hidden; visually alert to new objects, persons, places; vision monitors hand and body movements far and near acuity good; binocular vision stronger; has focus and accommodation; depth perception good; discriminates geometric forms; scribbles spontaneously; vision monitors movement in space vertical orientation (walking; building block towers); matches identical objects; points to pictures in a book; scribbles vertically, horizontally, and in circular motions; identifies forms

7 months: 8 months: 9-10 months: 12 months:

12-18 months:

Meeting the needs of Laila in the child care setting Modifications to the Physical environment Things to consider safety and sensory cues Used modified Materials Changes the classroom structure Inclusion of physical activity Modified curriculum

Modifications to the Physical environment

Physical Space

Edges of steps should be highlighted with contrasting paint or plastic nosings Slanted floor surfaces should be highlighted in contrasting colors Windows should have blinds that are effective in reducing glare Sitting in areas of bright sunlight should be avoided Furniture should be kept in the same place

Modifications to the Physical environment


Equipment needs to keep in one place for consistency Equipment should be at the childs level Visibility Uncluttered Wall displays, presentable, and put eye level Signs for different rooms, doors and walls should be painted in different colors to provide a contrast Door knobs and light switches should be highlighted in different colors Equipment in the playground area should be different colors Corridors should be free of obstacles diffused strip lighting is preferred

Teaching strategies for Laila

Allocate enough time and space for laila. Implementing the four strategies: Stabilize, enlarge, enhance and simplify method. Allow enough time during the transition. Follow strategies such as: Prompting and Fading. Reinforcements.

Meeting the needs of Lailas Family

Support from child care centre Provide extra time for families Engaged, connected,& build relationship Value their feelings and minimize stress Provide information about the Agencies and programs in the community. Resources to understand severe vision impairment: Paediatric ophthalmologist, optometrist, & optician Gynaecologist help as lailas mom is pregnant

Resources and Agencies in the Toronto area

Canadian National Institute for the Blind (CNIB)
The early intervention Program
1929 Bayview Avenue Toronto, ON M4G 3E8 Helpline: 1-800-563-2642 phone: (416) 486-2500-Ext. 7616 Fax: (416) 480-7028 Website:
Central Contact: Office of Beverley Ginon- Ext. 7616, who will help about the nearest service Sponsoring Agencies: Canadian National Institute for the Blind (CNIB) Area: Ontario Division Population Served: Families and other Children up to 6 years who are blind or visually impaired

Services: The CNIB provides relevant, specialized services nationwide They support and/or conduct research about vision to ensure the continued development of services. The CNIB also supports medical research and influences public policy, and the development of technology that helps people who are blind or visually impaired lead independent lives.

Resources and Agencies in the Toronto area

Vision Institute of Canada : not-for-profit optometry clinic
York Mills Centre 16 York Mills Road Suite 110 (Ground Floor) Toronto, ON M2P 2E5 Canada Tel: (416) 224-2273 Fax: (416) 224-9234 Email: Website: Cost: Free for children upon family doctors referral Services:
Offers both regular and specialized eye care services to patients of all ages All funds raised support services to persons in chronic care facilities Persons with visual impairments, brain injuries, developmental disabilities and unique vision problems.

Resources and Agencies in the Toronto area

Family Support Network Toronto
1645 Sheppard Avenue West TORONTO, ON M3M 2X4 PHONE: (416) 633-0515 FAX: (416) 633-7141 E-mail: E-mail: Contact: Barbara Powell/Rochelle Fine Sponsoring Agency: The Hincks-Dellcrest Centre/Community Program Area: North York West of Bathurst Population Served: Isolated families and/or children (0 to 5 years) with(or at risk of) developmental delays, and/or parents requesting parenting support. Cost: free

Resources and Agencies in the Toronto area

Aisling Discoveries Child and Family Centre
(Non-Profit Organization and funded by the United way)
325 Milner Avenue, Suite 110 Scarborough, ON Canada, M1B 5N1 Telephone: 416-321-5464, ext. 233 Fax: 416-321-1510 Email:

Services: Early Intervention Autism Services Community Support Family, Group and Individual Treatment Day Treatment Residential Treatment Area of Services: East York, Scarborough & some other area of Toronto Cost: Free of Cost, Age limit: birth to 12 years of age Referrals: Not mentioned but contact Tel: 416-321-5464 for an appointment

Self -Evaluation
Learning outcome Strength Weaknesses Challenges Discussions of the learning Future strategies for improvement Meet the G, C & E outcomes
*Please refer to the note page for detailed self evaluation and G,C & E reflection

Bibliography Chris Cadieux, ECEP-233; Reading package part-1,2,3. handout (week-1,2,3,4&5)