You are on page 1of 24

NETWORK TOPOLOGY

What is a Network Topology ?


A network topology refers to either the physical or logical layout of a network installation. Physical Topology when in the context of networking refers to the physical layout of the devices connected to the network, including the location and cable installation. The Logical Topology refers to the way it actually operates (transfers data) as opposed to its layout.

Types of Network Topology


Three commonly used network topologies are:Bus topology

Ring topology

Star topology

BUS TOPOLOGY

All computers and devices (nodes) connected to central cable or bus. Every nodes have their owns address and its send receiver.

Consists of a main run of cable with a terminator at each end.

Popular on LANs because they are inexpensive and easy to install.

Bus Topology Diagram

How does Bus Topology work?

How does Bus Topology work?

Advantages and Disadvantages of Bus Topology


ADVANTAGE
1) Easy to connect computer or peripheral to a linear bus. 2) Requires less cable length than a star topology.

DISADVANTAGE
1) Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable. 2) Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable. 3) Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down.

RING TOPOLOGY

Cable forms closed ring or loop, with all computers arranged along the ring. Data travels from device to device around the entire ring, in one direction. Messages are simply transferred from one computer to the next until they arrive at their intended destinations - each computer on the ring topology has a particular address.

How Does Ring Topology Work?

Advantages and Disadvantages of Ring Topology


ADVANTAGES 1) Data is quickly transferred 1) without a bottle neck. DISADVANTAGES Data packets must pass through every computer between the sender and recipient therefore, this makes it slower.

2) The transmission of data is relatively simple as packets travel in one direction only.

2) If any of the nodes fail then the ring is broken and data cannot be transmitted successfully.

STAR TOPOLOGY
A physical Star topology connects the devices via a centralised unit such as a Hub or Switch. The most commonly used topology in LAN is the star topology. Star topology can be implemented in home, offices or even in a building.

The hub takes a signal that comes from any node and passes it along to all the other nodes in the network. A hub does not perform any type of filtering or routing of the data. It is simply a junction that joins all the different nodes together.

How Does Star Network Work?

Advantages and Disadvantages of Star Topology


ADVANTAGE 1) Easy to install and wire. DISADVANTAGE 1) Requires more cable length than a bus topology.

2) No disruptions to the 2) If the hub or concentrator network to connect or remove fails, nodes attached are devices disabled.

3) Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.

3) More expensive than bus topologies.

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING

1) Which of the following statements describe network topology correctly ?

A. Devices attached or detached at any point on the network.

B. The failure of device on the network.


C. Refers to the configuration of cables, computers and other peripherals. D. All of the above.

2) On a __________, all of the computers and devices (nodes) on the network connect to a central device.

A. Bus network B. Ring network C. Star network D. All of the above

3) On a star network, the central device that provides a common connection point for nodes on the network is called the __________.

A. Hub B. Personal computer C. Printer D. File server

4) On a bus network, if one node fails ________.

A. Only that node is affected B. Only the nodes before that node are affected C. Only the nodes after that node are affected D. All the nodes are affected

The transmission of data is relatively simple as packets travel in one direction only.

5) The statement above correctly refers to the ______. A. Bus network B. Ring network C. Star network D. All of the above

6) All the statements are true about ring topology except

A. Data is quickly transferred without a bottle neck. B. The transmission of data is relatively simple as packets travel in one direction only. C. If any of the nodes fail then the ring is broken

and data cannot be transmitted successfully. D. Security can be implemented in the hub/switch.

7) The true statement about star topology is

A. Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down. B. Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable. C. The transmission of data is relatively simple as packets travel in one direction only. D. Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.

SUMMARY
A better network can be built if you have the knowledge of these topologies and know the difference between each topology Things to consider when choosing a network: o Money - A linear bus network may be the least expensive way to install a network o Length of cable needed - The linear bus network uses shorter lengths of cable. o Future growth - With a star topology, expanding a network is easily done o Cable type - The most common cable in schools is unshielded twisted pair, which is most often used with star topologies

References
http://www.webopedia.com/quick_ref/top ologies.asp
http://www.escotal.com/topology.html

www.networktutorials.info/topology.html