Geography of The Middle East & North Africa: Mountain Ranges

Mountains form the natural barriers which contain peoples within an area and restrict movement

Mountains are a place of refuge and shelter for many ethnic groups

Mountains are a source of water through which river systems develop .

Mountains are a source of divine inspiration and revelation Mount Sinai Moses and the Ten Commandments Jabal an-Nour Mohammad and the first revelation .

Mountain Ranges: The Atlas Mountains & The Rif The Pontics The Taurus Mountains The Elburz & Zagros Mountains Mount Lebanon & The Anti-Lebanon Mountains The Atlas Mountains .

The Atlas Mountain Range .

.500km through Morocco.The Atlas Mountains is a mountain range across a northern stretch of Africa extending about 2. It separates the Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines from the Sahara Desert. Algeria and Tunisia.

copper.The Atlas Mountains is rich in natural resources especially iron ore. silver. mercury. marble. rock salt. . lead ore. coal and gas.

High Atlas. Anti-Atlas •Saharan Atlas •Tell Atlas •Aurès Mountains The Atlas Mountains .The Atlas Mountain Range •Middle Atlas.

The Middle Atlas The Atlas Mountains .

.The Middle Atlas •The Middle Atlas is part of the Atlas mountain range lying completely in Morocco. •The Atlas high points are Jbel Bou Naceur (3340m). and finally Jbel Bou Iblane (3172 m). •It is the westernmost of the three Atlas Mountain chains that define a large plateaued basin extending eastward into Algeria. The Atlas Mountains •It is a solid mountainous mass of 350km in length. in the North. then Jbel Jbel Mouâsker (3277 m).

The Middle Atlas •Snow can be seen here during the winter months and a cool climate during the summer. extensive forests of cedar are intersected by deep valleys. •Over the mountain slopes. The Atlas Mountains .

The Atlas Mountains . speaking Tamazight and living at very low population densities.The Middle Atlas •Bordered by the rich Plaine du Saïs and the cities of Fes. the mountainous reaches of the Middle Atlas are the stronghold of Berber tribes. Meknes and Beni Mellal.

The High Atlas The Atlas Mountains .

. which is the highest mountain in the Atlas and lies in the Toubkal National Park. •The High Atlas rises in the west at the Atlantic Ocean and stretches in an eastern direction to the MoroccoAlgerian border. The Atlas Mountains •The range includes Jbel Toubkal (4167m).The High Atlas •The High Atlas is part of the Atlas mountain range in central Morocco.

The High Atlas •It serves as a weather system barrier running east-west and separating the Sahara’s climatic influences. . The Atlas Mountains •The High Atlas forms the basins for a multiplicity of river systems. •Snow falls in the higher elevations and lasts well into spring. mostly on the north faces of the range. providing the basis for settlements here. which are particularly pronounced in the summer. A number of wadi and seasonal rivers terminate in the deserts. from the more Mediterranean climate to the north.

the mountain The Atlas Mountains .The High Atlas •Nomadic Berbers have inhabited especially around Jbel Ayachi (3747m).

along the caravan route between the Sahara and Marrakech. .The High Atlas •At the foot of the High Atlas is the fortified Berber city of Aït Benhaddou.

The Anti-Atlas/ Lesser Atlas The Atlas Mountains .

The Anti-Atlas/ Lesser Atlas •The Anti-Atlas is one of the mountain ranges lying completely in Morocco. In the south the range borders the Sahara. . to the heights of Oarzazate. with a few peaks higher. towards the northeast. •To the north lies the plateau 1700-1800m in height. The Atlas Mountains •The summits of the Anti-Atlas reach heights of 25002700 m. •It extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the southwest.

The Anti-Atlas/ Lesser Atlas •To the south lie the Sahara highlands at approximately 700m. Djebel Siroua. to the north. of volcanic origin. The Atlas Mountains . reaches 3304m. from the Mediterranean’s influence and belong to the Sahara climate zone. •The Anti-Atlas are separated by the High Atlas. One peak.

•The centre is the city of Tafraoute. The Atlas Mountains . the kasbah was important as a place of shelter . •Kasbah are found in many places in the region. including the older parts of Agadir. In former times.The Anti-Atlas/ Lesser Atlas •The Anti-Atlas are inhabited by the Chleuh Berber.

The Saharan Atlas The Atlas Mountains .

formed of ancient base rock covered by sediments of shallow seas and alluvial deposits. •The Saharan Atlas is one of the vast plateaus of Africa. The mountains see some rainfall and are better suited to agriculture than the plateau to the north.The Saharan Atlas •The Saharan Atlas forms the eastern part of the Atlas Mountains and lies in Algeria. •It marks the northern edge of the Sahara Desert. The Atlas Mountains . •The Saharan Atlas and the Tell Atlas merge in the east to join together into the Tébessa and Medjerda mountains.

The Saharan Atlas •The tallest peak is Djebel Aissa (2236m). riverbeds but only during the wet period. The Atlas Mountains . •Most of the population of the region are Chaoui Berbers. •The Saharan Atlas feeds wadis. The mountains have been a home to exiles expelled from the fertile coastal regions.

The Tell Atlas The Atlas Mountains .

•Together with the Saharan Atlas to the south it forms the northernmost of the ranges. dry summers and mild. The Atlas Mountains . •It has a Mediterranean climate (warm. through Algeria to Tunisia. •It parallels the Mediterranean coast.The Tell Atlas •The Tell Atlas is a mountain chain over 1500 km in length. belonging to the Atlas Mountain ranges from Morocco. rainy winters with snow in upper elevations). It ends at the Rif on the west.

The Tell Atlas •The northern slopes of the Tell Atlas are forested with the Algerian Fir. Atlas Cedar. •In the summer a hot dry wind. dry conditions along the northern coast of Africa. The Atlas Mountains •Several large cities such as Algiers and Oran lie at the base of the Tell Atlas. . pine and cork. blows north from the Sahara across the Tell Atlas. the Sirocco. causing dusty.

The Aurès Mountains The Atlas Mountains .

they served as a refuge for the Berber tribes. Vandals. •The highest peak is the Djebel Chélia (2328m). Byzantine and Arabs. forming a base of resistance against the Romans. •Historically. The Atlas Mountains . •The Chaoui Berbers occupy this region and practice tranchumance – the seasonal movement of population and livestock across short distances.The Aurès Mountains •The Aurès Mountains are an extension of the Atlas Mountains that lies to the east of the Saharan Atlas in eastern Algeria and northwestern Tunisia.

‫‪The Rif‬‬ ‫جباالألطلس‬ .

•It is part of the Cordillera Bética that also includes the mountains of Southern Spain. The Atlas Mountains .The Rif •The Rif is a mountainous region of northern Morocco. The Rif mountains are not part of the Atlas Mountains but belong to the Gibraltar Arc or Alborán Sea geological region.

•The western and central parts are covered in forests of Atlas Cedar. Cork Oak and Holm Oak. as well as the only remaining forests of Morocan Fir. and there forests consist mainly of pines.The Rif •The Rif receives more rainfall than any other region in Morocco with some parts receiving upwards of 2000mm or precipitation a year. . The Atlas Mountains •The eastern slopes receive less rainfall.

the Phoenicians began to establish trading posts on the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. They founded cities such as Tetouan. Carthage was supplanted by Rome. After the Third Punic War. Melilla and in the 5th century Tangier. The Atlas Mountains •The Carthaginians replaced the Phoenicians as a major power in the region. .The Rif •The Rif has been inhabited by the Riffains (Berber) since prehistoric times. •As early as the 11th century BC.

•In the 5th century AD. the region was raided by Vandals. It remained under Vandal control until the 6th century AD when the Byzantines came.The Rif •Under the Romans. The Atlas Mountains •In 710. the Riff became part of the Roman province of Mauretania. . Salih I ibn Mansur founded the Kingdom of Nekor in the Rif and converted most Berbers to Islam. Arabs then established more cities. and Roman rule ended.

The Pontics .

.The Pontic Mountain range. also known as the Parhar Mountains in the local Turkish and Greek languages is a mountain range in Northern Turkey that stretched parallel and close to the southern coast of the Black Sea and extends eastwards to Georgia.

is home to the EuxineColchis deciduous forests. Europe’s only temperate rain forests. The coast is rocky and rugged. known as the Kaçkar Mountains. The Atlas Mountains The narrow coastal strip between the mountains and the Black Sea. predominantly of conifers.The Pontics The mountains are generally covered by dense forests. . while the Caucasus mixed forests extend across the eastern end of the range. known as Pontus. The Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests is an ecoregion which covers most of the range.

It is mostly unwooded. which lies south of the range.The Pontics The Anatolian Plateau. has a considerably drier and more continental climate than the humid and coastal climate. The Atlas Mountains . but the northern slopes contain dense growths of both deciduous and evergreen forests.

931 m. with steep rocky peaks and numerous mountain lakes. The Atlas Mountains . alpine in character. The highest peak in the range is Kaçkar Dağı.The Pontics The Kaçkar Mountains are glaciated mountains. which rises to 3.

The Taurus Mountains .

from which the Euphrates and Tigris descend into Iraq.The Taurus Mountain Range is a mountain complex in southern Turkey. It divides the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau. .

The Atlas Mountains The highest peaks are Demirkazik (3.723m). Some of the peaks have glaciers on top with a small lake as well.916m). Emler and Kizilkaya (both 3.The Taurus Mountains The range starts from Egridir Lake in the west and extends to the upper side of the Euphrates River in the east after making a long curve. Its northeastern extension across the Seyhan River near Adana is called the Anti-Taurus. The mountains are rugged. .756m) at the Aladaglar National Park. Nemrut Dag in the Anti-Taurus (3.

•Assyrian and Babylonian civilizations ended at the Taurus. The Atlas Mountains .The Taurus Mountains The mountains have often been a long barrier to movement between the Anatolian basin and Syria. •It was the frontier between the Roman dioceses Oriens and Pontus. •It was the frontier between the Byzantine Empire and the Caliphates of Damascus and Baghdad. •It was the frontier of the Seleucid and Atta lid empires.

The Atlas Mountains .The Taurus Mountains The southern side of the Taurus mountains have been inhabited by the nomadic Yörük peoples. away from the bitter cold of the mountains and the Anatolian Plateau.

The Elburz Mountain Range .

The Elburz Mountains .

The Elburz Mountains The Alborz. Elburz or Elborz is a mountain range in northern Iran. . stretching from the borders of Azerbaijan and Armenia in the northwest to the southern end of the Caspian Sea. and ending in the east at the borders of Turkmenistan and Afghanistan.

in stark contrast has few trees and is characterised by barren brown slopes and desert below.The Elburz Mountains It forms a climatic barrier from the Caspian and the Central Iranian Plateau. . The southern side. The northern side receives a great deal of snow and rain and is blanketed by lush forests and a fertile coastal plain.

The Elburz Mountains The Elburz is amongst the highest mountain range in the region and include Iran’s highest point. Damavand (5. The southern face towers above Tehran. . It is a potentially active volcano with thermal springs.771m). the capital.

500m. both above 4.The Elburz Mountains Other high peaks include Alam-Kuh and Takht-iSuleiman. . The mountain range supports permanent snow and glaciers and although the southern slopes of the range tend to be dry and barren. the northern valleys leading to the Caspian Sea are lush with vegetation.

The Zagros Mountain Range .

The Zagros Mountains .

With a total length of 1.The Zagros Mountains The Zagros Mountains are the largest mountain range in Iran and Iraq. the Zagros range spans the whole length of the western and southwestern Iranian plateau and ends at the Straits of Hurmuz. Salt domes and glaciers are also an important target for oil production. The Zagros is an important part of Persian Gulf oil production.500 km from northwestern Iran and roughly correlating to Iran’s western border. .

The Zagros Mountains Composed primary of limestone and shale. 548m) and Mount Dena (4. the mountain range has permanent snow cover. . The highest point are Zard Kuh (4.358m).

Assyrians. Guti.The Zagros Mountains In ancient times. Elamites and Mitanni. The mountains create a geographic barrier between the flatlands of Mesopotamia and the Iranian Plateau. . who periodically invaded the Sumerian and Akkadian cities of Mesopotamia. the Zagros was the home of peoples such as the Kassites.

Mount Lebanon

Mount Lebanon

The Zagros Mountain Range

Mount Lebanon
Mount Lebanon or the Western Mountain Range of Lebanon extends across the whole country along about 160km parallel to the Mediterranean Coast. Lebanon has been historically defined by these mountains, which provided protection for the local population. The mountains are known for their oak and pine forests.

.Mount Lebanon In the high slopes of Mount Lebanon are the last remaining groves of the famous Cedars of Lebanon.

Mount Lebanon The Forests of the Cedars of God are among the last survivors of the extensive forests of the Cedars of Lebanon that thrived across Mount Lebanon in ancient times. It is now on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. Babylonians and Persians as well as the Phoenicians. Their timber was exploited by the Assyrians. .

Mount Lebanon The highest peak is Qurnat as Sawda’ at 3.088 metres high. . Snow covers much of the mountain for most of the year.

The Anti-Lebanese Mountains .

The Anti-Lebanese Mountains .

. this mountain range is located between Syria and Lebanon.The Anti-Lebanese Mountains Also known as the Eastern Lebanese Mountains. At the southern end it is within the Golan Heights. The Beqaa Valley lies between in the north and the Hasbani River Valley in the south. The range lies parallel to the Mount Lebanon Range.

.814m) is the highest peak in the Anti-Lebanese Mountains.The Anti-Lebanese Mountains Mount Hermon (2.

Due to its height. Melted water from the mountain forms streams and rivers which merge to form the Jordan River. .The Anti-Lebanon Mountains Mount Hermon forms one of the greatest geographic resources of the area. it can capture a great deal of precipitation in a very dry area of the world.

com .Acknowledgements • •www.euratlas.wikipedia.