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Network Standards

OSI & TCP/IP

Figure 2-8: Hybrid TCP/IP-OSI Architecture


General Purpose (Core Later) Application-application communication Transmission of a packet across an internet Layer Application (5) Transport (4) Internet (3) Transmission of a frame across a single network (LAN or WAN) Data Link (2) Physical (1) Specific Layer Purpose Application-application interworking Host-host communication Packet delivery across an internet Frame delivery across a network Device-device connection

Figure 2-9: Physical and Data Link Layer Standards in a Single Network, Continued

Data Link Layer


Data link layer standards govern the transmission of frames across a single networktypically by sending them through several switches along the data link
Frame Data Link A-B Switch X1 Switch X2 Host B

Host A

Figure 2-10: Internet and Data Link Layers in an Internet, Continued


Frame X Packet Data Link A-R1 In Network X: Switch Two Destination Addresses: Packet: Host B (Destination Host) Switch Server Frame: Router Station R1

Host A

Switch X1 Mobile Client Station


Network X Switch X2 Route A-B

Router R1

Figure 2-10: Internet and Data Link Layers in an Internet, Continued


To Network X
Route A-B Router R1 Frame Y Packet

Data Link In Network Y: R1-R2 Two Destination Addresses: Packet: Host B (Destination Host) Frame: Router R2 To Network Z Router R2

Network Y

Figure 2-10: Internet and Data Link Layers in an Internet, Continued


Data Link R2-B Host B Frame Z Packet

Switch Z1

Router R2

In Network Z: Two Destination Addresses: Switch Packet: Host B (Destination Host) Z2 Frame: Host B
Mobile Client Stations Network Z Switch X2 Router

Figure 2-11: Internet and Transport Layer Standards, Continued


2. Transport Layer end-to-end (host-to-host) TCP is connection-oriented, reliable UDP is connectionless and unreliable Server

Client PC

1. Internet Layer (usually IP) hop-by-hop (host-router or router-router) connectionless, unreliable

Router 1

Router 2

Router 3

Ethernet Frame
Preamble 10101010. Preamble (3 more octets)
Start Delim. 10101011

Destination Address (6 octets total) Destination Addr Source Address

Source Address Length (2 octets) LLC header + data + (pad if < 46 octets)

FCS (4 octets)

IP Datagram Packet
0 4 8 16 31

Vers

Hlen Identifier

TOS
flags

Length (in octets) Offset Header Checksum

TTL

Protocol

Source IP Address Destination IP Address Options (0 44 octets) Data (Data + header <= 64 KB

Figure 2-16: TCP and UDP at the Transport Layer, Continued


Protocol TCP UDP

Layer
ConnectionOriented? Reliable?

Transport Transport
Yes Yes No No

Burden on the two hosts Burden on the network

High
High

Low
Low

Figure 2-18: Layered Communication on the Source Host


The process begins when a browser creates an HTTP request message

Application Process Passes Message Down to Transport Process Transport Process

HTTP Message

HTTP TCP Message Hdr

Encapsulation of HTTP Message in Data Field of TCP Segment

Figure 2-18: Layered Communication on the Source Host, Continued

When a layer process (N) creates a message, it passes it down to the next-lower-layer process (N-1) immediately The receiving process (N-1) will encapsulate the Layer N message, that is, place it in the data field of its own (N-1) message

Figure 2-18: Layered Communication on the Source Host, Continued


Transport Process HTTP TCP Message Hdr

Internet Process

HTTP TCP IP Message Hdr Hdr

Encapsulation of TCP Segment in Data Field of IP Packet

Figure 2-18: Layered Communication on the Source Host, Continued


Internet Process HTTP TCP IP Message Hdr Hdr

Data Link Process

Eth HTTP TCP IP Eth Trlr Message Hdr Hdr Hdr

Encapsulation of IP Packet in Data Field of Ethernet Frame

Figure 2-18: Layered Communication on the Source Host, Continued


Data Link Process Eth HTTP TCP IP Eth Trlr Message Hdr Hdr Hdr

Physical Process

Physical Layer converts the bits of the frame into signals.

Figure 2-20: Layered End-to-End Communication


Source and Destination Hosts Have 5 Layers
App Trans Int DL Phy

Switches Have Two Layers --Each Switch Port Has One Layer (1)

Routers Have Three Layers --Each Router Port Has Two Layers (1&2)

Source Host

Switch 1

Switch 2

Router 1

Switch 3

Router Destination 2 Host

Figure 2-21: Combining Horizontal and Vertical Communication


Hypertext Transfer Protocol App Trans Int DL Phy Source Host Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol

Switch 1

Switch 2

Router 1

Switch 3

Router Destination Host 2

Figure 2-22: The Hybrid TCP/IP-OSI Architecture


Broad Purpose Hybrid TCP/IP-OSI OSI Communication between applications Internetworking Transmission within a single LAN or WAN Application Application (Layer 5) Presentation Session Application TCP/IP

Transport (Layer 4)
Internet (Layer 3) Data Link (Layer 2)

Transport
Network Data Link

Transport
Internet Use OSI Standards Here

Physical (Layer 1)

Physical

Figure 2-26: Characteristics of Protocols Discussed in the Chapter


Layer Protocol ConnectionOriented /Connectionless Connectionless Reliable/ Unreliable

5 (App) 4 (Transport) 4 (Transport) 3 (Internet) 2 (Data Link)

HTTP TCP UDP IP Ethernet

Unreliable Reliable Unreliable Unreliable Unreliable

Connectionoriented
Connectionless Connectionless Connectionless

Note: Only TCP is connection-oriented and reliable