DEPT.OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGG. S.V.U.COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING TIRUPATI-517 502 E-mail: veerareddy_vc@yahoo.com Phone: 9849409094, 08772249988


History of electricity…
• Like the history of a nation from which its people get inspired, the history of any science inspires its future generations. • Even more than that those who spent their whole life for the inventions/ discoveries, they did not do that for themselves rather they did it for the whole society, the whole world

) .History of electricity • According to Indian and Greek Mythology. • But no record evidence and documentation to support.. • Technology to build huge temples and forts was there long before( Tanjore. sanjeevini and divya dhrusti were used. people used to send the information very quickly • In Ramayana and Mahabharatha Puspaka Vimanam.

. Built in 1010 AD by Raja Raja Chola I in Thanjavur also popularly known as the ‘Big Temple'.44 km. turned 1000 years old in 2010.Bruhadeeswar temple • This temple is one of India's most prized architectural sites.28 tones and was raised to its present height(66m) by dragging on an inclined plane of 6. • Huge kalasam or Vimanam (top portion of the shrine) is believed to weigh 81.

• Patients suffering from ailments such as headache were directed to touch electric fish in the hope that the powerful jolt might cure them .History of electricity… • Long before people were aware of shocks from Electric Fish. Ancient Egyptian texts dating from 2750 BC referred to these fish as the "Thunderer of the Nile.

although this has not yet been proven. .. History of Electricity…. dated to about 250 BC and called the Baghdad Battery.• An object found in Iraq in 1938. • It Resembles a galvanic cell and is believed by some to have been used for electroplating in Mesopotamia.

•The amber can then pick up a feather. •The wool becomes positively charged.Ancient Greeks – Static Electricity • Rub amber with wool. Amber becomes negatively charged by attracting negative charges from the wool. .

• At around 450 B. Democritus. developed an atomic theory that was remarkably similar to our modern atomic theory.• Ancient cultures around the Medi -terranean knew that certain objects. . a later Greek philosopher.C. History of electricity…. such as rods of amber. could be rubbed with cat's fur to attract light objects like feathers. The hypothesis of Leucippus and Democritus held everything to be composed of atoms.

a Greek philosopher made a series of observations on static electricity around 600 BC. .History of Electricity…. • Thales of Miletus. from which he believed that friction rendered amber magnetic. in contrast to minerals such as magnetite. which needed no rubbing. • This strange effect remained mystery for over 2200 years..

• This electric and electronic world was not just the effort of some years or decades.2200 Years Later • Around 1600 AD. . a physician who lived in London studied magnetic phenomena and demonstrated that the Earth itself was a huge magnet. William Gilbert. rather it is the result of the hard work of great minds since ages. So now it is the time to remember them.

Luigi Galvani. Alessandro Volta etc. Coulomb. none of them had any application in mind. . • However. They were just motivated by the intellectual curiosity. They also probably did not realize that their work will lead to such an exciting engineering innovation. Benjamin Franklin. worked on electric and magnetic field principles.History of electricity… • The development of the modern day electrical energy system took a few centuries. Prior to 1800. scientists like William Gilbert.

• Between 1800 and 1810 commercial gas companies were formed . .History of electricity…. George Ohm and Karl Gauss the exciting possibilities of the use of electrical energy started to dawn upon the scientific community.first in Europe and then in North America. • Around the same time with the research efforts of scientists like Sir Humphrey Davy. Andre Ampere.

Michael Faraday worked on induction principle between 1821 and 1831. • Around the same time American Engineer Joseph Henry also worked independently on the induction principle and applied his work on electromagnets and telegraphs. The modern world owes a lot to this genius. Faraday subsequently used his induction principle to build a machine to generate voltage. .History of electricity…… • In England.

Siemens etc built primitive generators using the induction principle. The arc lamps were used in lighthouses and streets. • It was also observed around the same time that when current carrying carbon electrodes were drawn apart. . The commercialization of arc lighting took place in the decade of 1870s. Alfred Varley.History of electricity • For about three decades between 1840 and 1870 engineers like Charles Wheatstone. brilliant electric arcs were formed.

This was the first electric bulb that glowed for 44 hours before burning out. Therefore the idea of using this principle was very tempting and attracted attention. Edison himself improved the design of the lamp later.History of electricity… • From early 1800 it was noted that a current carrying conductor could be heated to the point of incandescent. • In October 1879 Thomas Alva Edison lighted a glass bulb with a carbonized cotton thread filament in a vacuum enclosed space. .

History of electricity…. However we can easily visualize that this would have resulted in the under utilization of resources. • The Pearl Street power station in New York City was established in 1882 to sell electric energy for incandescent lighting. . The system was direct current three-wire. 220/110 V and supplied Edison lamps for a total power requirement of 30 kW • The only objective of the early power companies was illumination.

History of electricity…. It was then obvious to the power companies that an elaborate and expensive set up would lay idle for a major amount of time. With this the electric energy era really and truly started . • This provided incentive enough to improve upon the design of electric motors to make them commercially viable. • As the motors became popular very quickly and were used in many applications.. • The lighting load peaks in the evening and by midnight it reduces drastically.

Brief History of Great scientists .

.William Gilbert • The history of electricity begins with William Gilbert a physician who served Queen Elizabeth I of England.  Electricity would remain little more than an intellectual curiosity for millennia until 1600 AD. distinguishing the Lodestone effect from static electricity produced by rubbing amber • Gilbert raised the interest in the new science greatly. when the English scientist William Gilbert made a careful study of electricity and magnetism . It was Gilbert who coined the expression "electrica" in his famous book.

William Gilbert Contd..

• Inspired and educated by William Gilbert several European inventors such as, • Otto Von Guericke of Germany, • Charles Francois Du Fay of France, • and Stephen Gray of England, expanded the knowledge of electricity.

History of electricity….
• In 1660, Otto von Guericke invented a machine that produced static electricity, this was the first electric generator. • In 1729, Stephen Gray discovered the principle of the conduction of electricity. • In 1733, Charles Francois du Fay discovered that electricity comes in two forms which he called resinous (-) and vitreous (+), now called negative and positive.

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790 .

It was a big mystery at that time. .Benjamin Franklin • The formal beginning of electrical engineering goes back to 18th century when Franklin gave the explanation to the cause of thunder and lightning. • But. the lucid explanation of Franklin gave the first idea of charge flow and its consequence.

• Among his many creations were the lightning rod—a device which saved countless homes. Benjamin Franklin . fathers of American Nation. was born in Boston on Jan 17. 1706. lives and ships from lightning induced fires • He extracted electricity from clouds through kites experiment.• Benjamin Franklin. conducted extensive research on electricity in the 18th century.

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) • His kite experiment demonstrated that lightning is electricity. He quit school at age ten to become a printer. • His life is the classic story of a self-made man achieving wealth and fame through determination and intelligence. . • Franklin was one of seventeen children. He was the first to use the terms positive and negative charge.

This story is a familiar one.he could easily have been killed . which he flew during a thunder storm. • When lightning flashed. in which Franklin fastened an iron spike to a silken kite. a tiny spark jumped from the key to his wrist. while holding the end of the kite string by an iron key. Franklin proved that lightning and the spark from amber were one and the same thing. but was extremely dangerous .Franklin Contd.. • In 1752. The experiment proved Franklin's theory.

anyway his famous frog leg experiment gave some solid basis to the future researchers to develop the concept of potential difference.electricity from his famous experiment using the frog leg. • That created some ideas that electricity is related to life at that time. But.Luigi Galvani • There after the next big name was Luigi Galvani an Italian professor of medicine who discovered the so called bio. He thought that electricity as one of the sources of life. .

found that when the leg of a dead frog was touched by a metal knife. the leg twitched violently.. In 1791. Galvani thought that the muscles of the frog must contain electricity. Luigi Galvani.Luigi Galvani In 1786. demonstrating that electricity was the medium by which Nerve cells passed signals to the muscles. Galvani published his discovery of Bioelectricity. .

Alessandro Volta was born in Italy.Volta’s Story • In 1745. he died. he received a professorial appointment at University of Pariah. he was already 82-year-old . • In 1774. who was appointed professor of physics in the Come high school. he was 29-year-old. at that time. • In 1779. • In 1827.

Alessandro Volta
• 1792, another Italian scientist, Alessandro Volta, disagreed. The mystery of the frog-leg experiment was disclosed by Alessandro Volta. • He repeated Galvani’s frog leg experiment using various types of electrodes. There after he concluded that the spark in the frog-leg experiment is not due to the frog rather it has a different reason

Alessandro Volta • He realized that the main factors in Galvani's discovery were the two different metals - the steel knife and the tin plate - upon which the frog was lying. • Volta showed that when moisture comes between two different metals, electricity is created. This led him to invent the first electric battery, the voltaic pile, which he made from thin sheets of copper and zinc separated by moist pasteboard.

Alessandro Volta
• In 1800, Alessandro Volta of Italy built the voltaic pile and discovered the first practical method of generating electricity. • Alessandro Volta had just invented the DC battery in 1800, and it showed great potential for the future. • Most scientists were occupied in the study of the applications of DC electricity, and the next step in developing the alternator had to wait for thirty-six years.

• But it happened quite late in 1820 when Oersted found that the needle of a compass is deflected when kept near a current carrying conductor .Oersted • The strangest and the most effective thing in the history of electrical engineering is the merging of magnetism with the electricity which gives rise to the one of the most fundamental interactions of nature known as the electromagnetic interaction.

. which is today known as Coulomb force after his name. So Coulomb’s theory was regarded as the first mathematical expression that defined the electrical charge in a well defined manner.Charles-Augustin Coulomb • Though the concept of charge was there before Coulomb there was no formal mathematical theory to explain the concept. • He also invented the torsion balance and that helped him to calculate the force of interaction between the electrical charges.

magnetism and applied mechanics. In magnetism he determined the quantitative force law. and introduced the idea of demagnetization. .Charles-Augustin Coulomb • Coulomb(1736-1806) of France was a pioneer in the field of electricity. created a theory of magnetism based on molecular polarization.

astronomy and optics.Gauss • Gauss(1777-1855)was a German mathematician and Physical Scientist who contributed significantly to many fields. Those works of Gauss are known as Gauss theorems. . including geophysics. • Gauss also gave the alternative forms of mathematical equations to explain electricity and magnetism.

His father exposed Ampere to a library. a chemist. 1775-1836) was a mathematician. • Between 1820 and 1825.André-Marie Ampére • Ampere (France. Ampere became the professor of physics and chemistry . a physicist and a philosopher. Ampere soon discovered and perfected his mathematical talents. after a series of experiments. Ampere provided factual evidence for his contention that magnetism was electricity in motion and was able to unify the fields of electricity and magnetism on a basic numeric level . .

he was 61-year-old. at that time.• The unit of the current is named by Andre Marie Ampere. • In 1787. he was 12-year-old. • In 1822. he had already learned differentiation and integral calculus. he was born in the town of French Lyon. he discovered Ampere’s Law. • In 1836. • In 1775. he died in Marseilles. .

an analysis of friction in machinery. France.Coulomb’s Story • In 1736. • In 1806. France. • In 1779. • In 1777. . He had 70year-old. he invented the torsion balance for measuring the force of magnetic and electrical attraction. he published the Theory of Simple Machines. he died in Paris. Charles Augustine de Coulomb was born in Angouleme.

physics. He received his Ph. Georg Simon matriculated in 1805 and studied 3 semesters at the University of Erlangen. 1789-1854) was a mathematician and a physicist.Georg Simon Ohm • Georg Simon Ohm (Germany. His mathematical talents were soon recognized by the Erlangen professor Langsdorf.D on the 25th of October 1811. chemistry and the philosophies of Kant and Fichte. He began his experiments on electricity and magnetism after 1820 . • He began to teach mathematics in September 1806. His father provided him a solid education in mathematics.

Simon Ohm • It was not known why some energy in the form of potential difference is required to make the charges flow from one end to the other. He for the first time introduced the concept of resistance and conductance. In almost all the conductors there is some resistance that opposes the flow of current through them . • The explanation came from the German scholar George Simon Ohm.

Potential differences can be created in various ways . • Then it was proved that potential difference is very important to keep the charges moving from one end to the other in a conductor.Simon Ohm • Due to Resistance the charges cannot flow in the conductors without the presence of any energy source in the form of potential difference.

Sir Humphry Davy • Humphry Davy born in1778 was a British chemist best known for his experiments in electro-chemistry and his invention of a miner's safety lamp. He was hired as an assistant lecturer in chemistry at the Royal Institution. with his lectures soon becoming a draw for fashionable London society. • He was apprenticed to a surgeon and aged 19 went to Bristol to study science. There he was a great success. .

He became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1803 and was awarded its Copley Medal in 1805. He prepared and inhaled nitrous oxide (laughing gas) and in 1800 published the results of his work in 'Researches.Sir Humphry Davy • He investigated gases. . Chemical and Philosophical'. • This made his reputation and the following year he was hired as an assistant lecturer in chemistry at the Royal Institution.

Sir Humphry Davy • Davy was now considered one of Britain's leading scientists and was knighted in 1812. • He visited Paris .even though Britain and France were at war .where he collected a medal awarded to him by Napoleon. . Davy set off on a two year trip to Europe. • In 1813. and identified the element iodine for the first time.

• Faraday was a poor child who had always aims to do something big in the scientific research. He not only gave birth to some interesting theories. He got the opportunity from the then big name Humphrey Davy. Michel Faraday . but himself invented some fundamental electrical machines like the transformer and electric motors.• In the next phase started the real victory of the electrical engineering under the leadership Michel Faraday.

. made one of the most significant discoveries in the history of electricity: Electromagnetic induction.Michael Faraday • (1791-1867) an Englishman. but they would come fifty to one hundred years later. Many inventions would come from his experiments. • His pioneering work dealt with how electric currents work.

Faraday Maxwell • Faraday’s law was not accepted by many of his contemporaries because the nature of the lines of forces he described did not sound satisfactory to many at that time. but there was another genius to understand and explain it quite lucidly. He is none other than Maxwell • Maxwell combined all the mathematical equations available at that time and helped to systematize the electrical science .

Maxwell • He unified the optics as a part of the whole electromagnetism. • After Maxwell it was just the matter of time to invent the electrical machines and communication devices to deliver the service to the mankind and to take the civilization in the road of science and technology. .

Maxwell was one of the finest mathematicians in history. • Today he is widely regarded as secondary only to Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein in the world of science .James Maxwell (1831-1879) • a Scottish mathematician translated Faraday's theories into mathematical expressions. named in his honor. • A Maxwell is the electromagnetic unit of magnetic flux.

educated himself by reading books on a wide range of scientific subjects. His family was not well off and Faraday received only a basic formal education. 1791 in south London and was an English Chemist and Physicist. When he was 14. he was apprenticed to a local bookbinder and during the next seven years. .MICHAEL FARADAY Michael Faraday was born on 22 Sept.

Faraday subsequently wrote to Davy asking for a job as his assistant. Faraday attended four lectures given by the chemist Humphry Davy at the Royal Institution. why magnetism couldn’t produce Electricity? . When current Could produce magnetism. Davy turned him down but in 1813 appointed him to the job of chemical assistant at the Royal Institution.MICHAEL FARADAY In 1812.

Italy and Belgium and meeting many influential scientists. helping with experiments for Davy and other scientists . Switzerland. • On their return in 1815. Faraday continued to work at the Royal Institution.MICHAEL FARADAY • A year later. Faraday was invited to accompany Davy and his wife on an 18 month European tour. taking in France.

His concept of lines of forces was not accepted by the then scientific community. • He first gave the knowledge of electrical power generation and made the first transformer of the world. But it was a bit strange that he himself did not have the idea that his discoveries will some day change the science of the world .MICHAEL FARADAY • He gave many fundamental theories which are like the back bone to the electrical sciences. but was later found to be the fundamental fact of electromagnetism.

That also was a fundamental tool to prove that the electric charges are quantized. which was also developed by another great of that time. Joseph Henry. He also gave the concept of inductance.Faraday Faraday’s laws of electrolysis were beneficial to both the chemists and physicists of that time. So the electrical engineering was unstoppable and running really fast to be the most attractive science at that time .

. In 1832. he started active research on electricity and magnetism. New York. He was born to a Scottish descent. His elementary education was in Albany and Galway.Joseph Henry Joseph Henry (USA. He independently uncovered the sense of Ohm's law and engaged in impedance matching. Henry discovered selfinductance following some experiments. He came from a poor family and was apprenticed to an Albany watchmaker and silversmith. In 1827. 1797-1878) was a pioneer in the field of electromagnetism.

and the electrical generating equipment they produced marked a turning point. In 1867 he improved the AC generator (alternator) making it a more practical device for the production of alternating current.Zénobe Gramme • It was the Belgian-French inventor Zénobe Gramme who designed the alternator. . two years later he improved the DC dynamo • In 1871 Gramme and his associate Hippolyte Fontaine opened a factory. for it is upon their work that the electrical industry was established.

electric motors attained only low power and were mainly used as toys . • The Gramme machine was the first usefully powerful electric motor that was successful industrially. Before Gramme's inventions.Zénobe Gramme • In 1873 Gramme and Fontaine accidentally discovered that the device was reversible and spin when connected to any DC power supply. .

Nikola Tesla made the first public demonstration of radio communication. he described and demonstrated in detail the principles of radio communication. Addressing the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and the National Electric Light Association. .Nikola Tesla • In 1893.

• He envisioned a world without poles and power lines.Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) • He was born of Serbian parents. Referred to as the greatest inventive genius of all time. • Tesla's system triumphed to make possible the first large-scale harnessing of Niagara Falls with the first hydroelectric plant in the United States in 1886 to town of Buffalo. .

Nikola Tesla • Tesla began working with Edison and spent a year in the futile attempt to convince Edison of the advantages of AC. Because alternators did not require the slip rings and commutators which caused arcing in the DC dynamos. . • In addition. alternators produced voltages that could be increased with a transformer and carried great distances with high tension wires.

. • But one of Edison contemporaries Nikola Tesla had something different in his mind. He used his brain to make AC popular. He invented the induction motor and proved that AC can be used more efficiently than DC • When Tesla obtained a patent for his electric motor in 1888. . he sold the rights to George Westinghouse.Tesla contd.

Nikola Tesla • Ironically. • By 1895 the water power of Niagara Falls was being used to generate alternating current. Westinghouse underbid Edison for the contract to provide electricity at the Columbia Exposition in Chicago in 1893. and this led to an increasing preference for alternating current. . He immediately contacted Tesla. who manufactured a polyphase (two-phase) AC system and made this first electrical exposition in history a spectacular success.

Thomas Alva Edison  The first achievement after Maxwell’s theory was the invention of the electric bulbs by another genius Thomas Edison. He lighted the world by his electric bulbs.  He invented numerous electrical devices and contributed the most to the consumer electrics. He was mainly using DC and was the greatest advocate of the use of DC .

He was also to be responsible for making many of those changes occur. a fad. Edison patented 1. entire cities were lit by electricity. Born in 1847. By the time he died. Much of the credit for that progress goes to Edison. • When Edison was born. In his lifetime. .093 inventions.Thomas Alva Edison • Thomas Alva Edison was both a scientist and an inventor. society still thought of electricity as a novelty. Edison would see tremendous change take place in his lifetime.

Thomas Alva Edison • Another big thing had happened at the same time while Edison was trying to light an electric bulb. . • Edison found that in a closed environment even without the physical contact of wires there exist a small current through them when they are heated to a sufficiently high temperature. That was the “Edison effect” or the thermo ionic effect.

He took out more than 400 patents first time.George Westinghouse • George Westinghouse. Jr. . • He was also one of Edison‘s rivals in the early implementation of the American electricity system. ( 1846 – 1914) was an American engineer and entrepreneur who invented the railway air brake and was a pioneer of the electrical industry.

• In 1886.. • Westinghouse also became a pioneer in the use of alternating current for electric power distribution.Westinghouse contd. attracting Nikola Tesla to work with him. Nine year later. he founded the Westinghouse Electrical Company. Westinghouse harnessed the power of the Niagara Falls to generate successfully enough electricity for the town of Buffalo. .

and the integrated circuit played major role in the development of electronics . • The late 19th century would see the greatest progress in electrical engineering.19th century • While it had been the early 19th century that had seen rapid progress in electrical science. the vacuum tube. • The history of electronics is a story of the twentieth century and three key components. the transistor.

That was even used for the transatlantic communications . • Alexandra Graham Bell opened the account by inventing the telephone. At around the same time the telegraphic communication using the Morse code was very popular.Graham Bell • By the same time there was a great need to reduce the distance of the various parts of the world by means of some communication technology.

• Then started a new chapter in the communication technology area. . which mesmerized the communication science. came when the German physicist Henry Hertz discovered the radio waves and also gave the methods to transmit and detect them. Not far than a decade after that the Russian scientist Popov and the Italian electrical engineer Marconi invented the radio and used antennas for radio communications.Hertz • But the main breakthrough.

The then famous English physicist Fleming found an alternative to the DC production. That happened again.Marconi • Marconi’s radio needs some good detectors for receiving incoming radio waves. . For that reason a good rectifier was needed which can convert the AC into DC. • Someone brings the breakthrough when all the great minds are in need. He invented the first vacuum tube using the principle known as “Edison Effect”.

London and Cambridge university . He is known for inventing the first thermionic valve or vacuum tube. He is also famous for the left hand rule (for electric motors). then called the kenotron in 1904. He studied in University college.JOHN AMBROSE FLEMING • Born on 29 November 1849 was an English electrical engineer and physicist. the diode.

Besides the anode and cathode there was an extra electrode known as grid. • The grid was controlling the flow of charges from the anode to the cathode.LEE DE FOREST • Just after two years of Fleming’s diode. So it helped a lot in the growth of the communication at that time. because it had three electrodes. Forest in the US invented another similar device which was named as triode. It was wonderful that triode had the characteristics of an amplifier. .

He invented the regenerative circuit while he was an undergraduate and patented it in 1914. He studied at Columbia University and an American electrical engineer and inventor. .ARMSTONG Was born in New York City in 1890. and the superheterodyne receiver in 1918. followed by the super-regenerative circuit in 1922. Armstrong was also the inventor of modern frequency modulation (FM) radio transmission.

ARMSTRONG • He has been called the most prolific and influential inventor in radio history. the French Legion of Honor. . • He held 42 patents and received numerous awards including the first IEEE Medal of Honor. • He is a member of the National Inventors Hall of Fame and the International Telecom unions roaster of great inventors. the 1941 Franklin Medal and the 1942 Edision Medal.

Max Plank and Niels Bohr provided the further explanation to the atomic theory Albert Einstein . • But the work of J J Thomson and Rutherford opened the secrets of the atoms and its subparticles. But no one was ready to accept his theory at that time.• A revolution in the whole science came when Einstein proposed his historic theory of relativity.

. • He himself saved the corpuscular theory of light from death and opened the road to the quantum theory. • It was not far to bring the quantum theory into light after Einstein’s Nobel winning photo-electric effect. He was not bothered about the critics.Einstein • Einstein himself came with his big version known as the general theory of relativity.

Schrödinger and Dirac proved the reality of the quantum theory. Heisenberg. Many theories like the Fermi-Dirac equations had opened the wide scale research on the solids . • At that time the physics of solids were also on its way to bloom. So the research in the scientific community got a great speed.Fermi-Dirac • Louis De Broglie.

• In Bell labs the scientists were desperately looking for some alternative to the vacuum diodes and triodes for the communication technology. • After the end of the horrible WW2 the whole world took some rest. But the scientific community who were working in the war forcefully or by the motivation of the country’s top leaders did not rest. Rather they started their original intended works at their previous work places.

Effect Electronics

Effect Electronics
• The research group in the Bell Labs found that the existing technology and the devices for better communication were not available at that time. So their main concern was to find some alternative for the existing amplifiers. • The valve amplifiers were the main obstacle in the road of progress. So, they looked for some solid state devices. • Bell labs too took some leading in the development of the communication sciences.

Effect Electronics
• The findings of Russell Ohl had confirmed that the pure silicon when doped with some impurities of tri and pentavalent materials can be used as two layers of a PN junction diode. • They had some foresights that, the junction phenomenon may be used for the building of a new amplifier. The group led by William Shockley was investigating these facts. • Other team members were Morgan, Bardeen, Brattain, Gibney, Moore and Pearson.

Thanks to the genius of the three young scientists of the Bell labs. That is known as point contact transistor. It was for the first time discovered by Bardeen and Brattain.Effect Electronics • Fortune favors the brave. . The auspicious day came and the science started growing at an exponential rate there after. who thought that the effects are mainly due to some surface phenomenon . • They found a new concept known as “ Transistor effect”.

He gave the theory that the transistor effect was due to some bulk phenomenon. which is today known as n-p-n transistor. There were some other problems which were barriers in the production of transistors in large scale.Effect Electronics • But Shockley was not dormant. . His book “Electrons and Holes in Semiconductors” is a popular book today as well. He too was working hard on something different. • After that he worked hard on the semiconductor theories and gave a satisfactory explanation to the transistor effect.

Effect Electronics • The real electronics what it is called today was actually started after the discovery of the transistor effect. • More importantly it opened the road for the computing world. • Computers of various types started hitting the market and the research works got a boost. . • Transistor opened the road for the electronics and there after electronics got its independent identity in electrical engineering.

Effect Electronics • Some other problems were also there like the assembling of the electronic components on a single mother board. It was worsened when the metallic contacts cross each other and crowded the mother board. capacitors and transistors on the same piece of wafer internally. • Jack Kilby in Texas Instruments found a very nice solution. He suggested to throw away all the wires and tried to connect the resistors. .

whose name was Shockley Semiconductor.• Surprisingly his ideas worked and gave birth to the Integrated Circuit industries. Robert Noyce and Jean Hoerni. Among them who are famous today are Gordon Moore. Robert Noyce also did many contributions to the IC technology by joining the Fairchild Company and the Fairchild Semiconductor was born Effect Electronics . At around the same time Shockley had left Bell Labs and started his own company in California. • Some other brilliant young researchers also joined his company there.

• Another history was being made in the USSR at the same time.Effect Electronics • By the efforts of both Noyce and Kilby the IC industry became very popular and looked forward for its next successor. the microprocessor. The first artificial satellite Sputnik was sent to the space. • There was a big demand for the better electronic components for the control and performance of the satellite and other electrical devices like the big motors and generators .

. which is known as MOSFET. • A new type of transistor was invented in early sixties.Effect of Electonics • Huge demand of transistors and ICs revolutionized the electronics industry at that time. MOSFET is slower than the junction transistor but it is smaller. cheaper and consumes less power.

both of whom were very popular already in the field of microelectronics. In 1971 their company invented the first microprocessor well known as 4004 having 2300 transistors on one silicon chip .Effect of Electronics • In 1965 Gordon Moore came out with an awesome paper called “Cramming more Components onto Integrated Circuits”. • In 1968 Robert Noyce and Moore left Fairchild to start Intel. In that paper he described that the number of transistors used on a single chip of silicon will grow exponentially.

Effect of Electronics • VLSI-The credit mainly goes to the young engineer Ted Hoff. Pentium series and the most modern processors like the Xeon too. While working on a Japanese project he found some problems with integrated circuits and planned to have even larger integrated circuits which can have the whole computer on a single chip. . 80486. • That microprocessor led the way to the successors like the 8080. 8085.

Effect of electronics • VLSI consists of thousands of circuits with onand-off switches or gates between them on a single chip. Microcomputers. . video cameras. medical equipment. and communication satellites are only examples of devices made possible by integrated circuits.

Due to the world wars there was a big need of computers for war related tasks like code breaking.Computers • The computers were another main attraction at that time. . • During the first and second world war some computers were made for this purpose. But they were not that efficient as many of them were using decimal systems and all the prime components were made up of vacuum tubes.

That’s why many say that 20th century is the century of computers. • The needs of computers were at peak during the WWII. one of the early computers .Computers • One of the most important and admirable creation of the 20th century scientists was the invention of computer. In Britain the German-code breaking project was being done by Colossus.

It was a huge computer of 30 tonnes.Computers • At the same time another general purpose programmable computer was being used in Harvard University which was built with help of IBM. fairly fast and having many vacuum diodes and triodes in the operation. It had covered some rooms and many of its parts were mechanical . • The main aim was to break the security codes of the enemy. Keeping this in mind the ENIAC was invented in the University of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia.

which used the ICs and the companies like IBM started the mainframe machines having more storage capacity and faster speed. They are popularly known as second generation computers.  After the invention of the first microprocessor 4004 in 1971 in Intel everyone in the microelectronic industries thought that microprocessors can help in the rapid growth of computers . The efforts of Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce gave birth to the third generation computers.Computers  The discovery of the transistor effect gave birth to new ideas for new computers.

The first personal computer built was the Altair 8800 of MITS which came around 1975. At the same time Apple computer was started and the first Apple machines hit the market in 1976. Among them the front runners were IBM and Apple .Computers • They started many new projects in inventing new microprocessors and the forth generation of computers started. • Many companies now got ready to provide computers at the household level.

• Even today C has that dominance. But the C language by Dennis Ritchie found to be very helpful in system programming. There were many operating systems and computer languages at the starting of 70s.Computers • In parallel to the development in the hardware the software industry was also blooming. The most popular languages were FORTRAN. . In the early eighties the most popular OOP technology was started with the birth of C++. COBOL and PASCAL etc.

• At the end of the nineties the new technologies like the Java helped a lot in the development of the web. Computers . Then the scenario was stolen by software companies like the Microsoft and Oracle who made the computing very popular and the computers no more remained a tool of the scientific community.

who started the supercomputer industry form his Cray series. Unlike the general computers the super computers were using a large number of parallel processors and high speed logics. . which were nearly impossible by the general computers. So the faster computers or the supercomputers were in the mind of many scientists. • Among them the front runner was Seymour Cray.Computers • At the same time there was a huge demand for the time limited tasks.

thought of the interconnection of the computers to form a common network. ftp. He tried it using the existing protocols like the http. the whole information regarding anything are just now clicks away. It became possible due to great person Tim berners-Lee. WWW-INTERNET-Tim Berners-Lee . researcher.• Tim Berners –Lee. • In addition to that he added a new framework which is now popularly known as WWW or the World Wide Web. The internet was born. and DNS etc. The whole knowledge banks of the world.

People were able to watch the distant things from their home.Television. • The distances between the continents did not seem to be far enough.John logie Baird • The invention of the television was a miraculous thing for the mankind. It was revolution in both communication technology and also for the world media. The popular artists through out the world become well known and got a huge recognition . The entertainment industry got new life.

seem to be moving. • After a long experiment he found that a series of static pictures if sent within a small interval of time in between them.John logie Baird • The credit goes to the British engineer John Logie Baird who followed the foot prints of Marconi and tried to send the images in the same way as the speech. . This move was successful after a number of trails.

Almost all modern activities run on electricity. • Because of their sacrifice.Engineer’s role • These scientists have worked for 25 hours a day sacrificing their social life and some of them lost their lives because of their own experiments. Entire world will stall if power failure occurs and we cannot imagine any activity without electricity . self less effort . we are happy and enjoying comforts.

57. .000 MW by the end of 2012. Dr. Abdul Kalam the then president of India addressed the need to reduce the power loss. • If we can save 16% loss we could save 25600 MW of power on installed capacity of 1.Power loss • It is your turn to do research on power loss.

.10 Great Scientists who were Killed by Their Own Experiments • These are the great people whose discoveries have changed the world but they were unfortunate as they died or injured themselves while performing their experiments. • The advances they have made to science are incredible and many of them opened the doors for some of man’s greatest discoveries and inventions.

Optics and light polarization was the field of his interest.1. Optics is a field requiring excellent vision. • Sir David is well known as the inventor of the kaleidoscope – a toy that gives joy to millions of children over the years. Sir David Brewster • Sir David was a Scottish scientist. . and a writer. • In 1831. Sir David performed a chemical experiment which almost blinded him. • He remained affected with eye troubles until his death.

• Unfortunately. Bogdanov forgot to test the health of the blood of the donor which he was using. Bogdanov took a transfusion of blood infected with malaria and tuberculosis which made him died shortly. • In 1928. philosopher. • In 1924. Alexander Bogdanov • Alexander Bogdanov was a Russian physician. economist. . • After performing 11 transfusions himself.2. he started experiments with blood transfusion. he stated that he had improved his eye sight. and a science fiction writer.

3. • Scheele had the habit of taste testing his discoveries and managed to survive his tastetest of hydrogen cyanide. manganese and chlorine. Karl Scheele • Scheele was a pharmaceutical chemist and had discovered many chemical elements. molybdenum. tungsten. • But he was unfortunate while tasting mercury and died from the symptoms of mercury poisoning. The most notable of his discoveries were oxygen. .

4. they did not realize the consequences of their lack of protection to xrays and Elizabeth died of an extremely widespread and violent cancer . Elizabeth Ascheim • Elizabeth Ascheim and her husband Woolf both were very much exited about the new discovery of Röntgen x-rays. • She and Woolf spent some years in experimenting with the machine. she bought an xray machine which was the first x-ray lab in San Francisco. Unfortunately.

In 1783. He took the flight but unfortunately after reaching 1. Jean Francois De Rozier . • Later.• Jean Francois was a teacher of chemistry and physics.500 feet in a combined hot air and gas balloon. the balloon deflated and made him to fall to his death. he witnessed the world’s first balloon flight that created a passion in him for flight. De Rozier planned a crossing of the English Channel from France to England.000 feet using a hot air balloon. He traveled at an altitude of 3. 5.

The frequent poisonings of gases made him useless for the remaining two decades of his life. unfortunately. Luckily this habit led to his discovery of anesthetic properties of nitrous oxide. Sir Humphry Davy • Sir Humphry Davy was a brilliant British chemist and inventor. He was so much passionate about chemistry.6. He had a habit of inhaling various gases while dealing with them. • But. He had also damaged his eyes. . this same habit led to him nearly killing himself on many occasions.

.7. He spent the rest of his life suffering with chronic chemical poisoning. He made efforts to improve Davy’s methods of electrolysis and to make useful discoveries in the field of electro-magnetics. Faraday also suffered damage to his eyes in a nitrogen chloride explosion. Michael Faraday • After the injury of a brilliant British chemist Sir Humphrey Davy’s eyes. Faraday became an trainee to him. • Unfortunately.

As a result of which. . His work on the refinement of the telescope was brilliant. He was fascinated with the sun and spent many hours staring at it. • But it also damaged his eyesight. Galileo • Galileo also referred to as the “father of modern physics”. It opened up the doors of the universe for future generations. he got extreme damage to his retinas.8. This was the most likely cause of his near blindness in the last four years of his life.

While performing experiments for his project. . Louis Slotin • Slotin worked on the US project to design the first nuclear bomb. The amount of radiation he exposed to was equivalent to standing 4800 feet away from an atomic bomb explosion. • Slotin was rushed to hospital where he died nine days later.9. he accidentally dropped a sphere of beryllium on a second sphere causing a prompt critical and affected by radiation.

Marie Curie • Curie along with her husband Pierre discovered radium in 1898. . Curie is the first and only person who received two Nobel prizes in science in two different fields.10. chemistry and physics. • Her constant exposure to radiation led to her contracting leukemia and due to which she died in 1934. She spent rest of her life performing radiation research and studying radiation therapy.

) (1849-1929). Brush (U.S. Inventor : Wheeler (USA). 1882. . 1800. Ohio • Electric Battery. 1879. Inventor : Volta (Italian) • Electric Fan. Cleveland. Inventor : C.F.Scientists and inventions • Arc Lamp.

W. New York City.) (18471931). 1879. • Electric Lamp.S. Inventor : Otto von Gueriche (Germany). First practical demonstration . Inventor : H. Seeley (U. • Electric Generation (Static). 1660.S.). Inventor : Thomas Alva Edison (U. 1882.Scientists and inventions • Electric Flat Iron.

. by Joseph Henry (U S). 1888. discovered previously. Exhibited in Vienna.) (1856-1943 • Electromagnetic Induction. Inventor : Michael Faraday (Great Britain). • Electric Motor (AC).S.Scientists and inventions • Electric Motor (DC). 1831. but not published. 1873. Inventor : Nikola Tesla (U. Inventor : Zenobe Gramme (Belgium) (1826-1901).

Inventor : Benjamin Franklin (U. . 1878. Philadelphia. 1752.S.Scientists and inventions • Gramophone.) (1706-90). Inventor : Thomas Edison (USA) • Lightning Conductor.

1876. Researched at Bell Telephone Laboratories. Jr.S). First application for a patent was by Dr Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in Canada in October 1925.S. (U. 1842.) (1847-1922). 1948. Name coined 1878 by David Hughes.S) • Transistor.Scientists and inventions • Microphone. Inventor : Alexander Graham Bell (U. Inventor : William Stanley. • Transformer (induction coil). Inventors : John Bardeen. William Shockley and Walter Brattain (U. .