Rebecca Taggart

 Physiognomy: • • • • • • • • • • •  “Effeminate” body Narrow shoulders Fleshy chest Swelling thighs Pendulous abdomen Full buttocks Spindly limbs Scrawny neck Hanging chin Thick lips Sunken cheeks Slanty eyes .

 ?Succeeded? Father Amenhotep III  Mother Queen Tiye (The Great Royal Wife)  Principal wife Nefertiti • 6 Daughters  Union with Kiya Women • 1 Daughter  Mystery • ?Son? Tutankamen .

and Religion of Egypt were marked by rapid change  Amarna Letters • Neglected foreign policy and allowed the Egyptian “empire” in the western Asia erode away . New Kingdom  Art (Amarna style). (r.1372-1355 BCE) – 18 years  10th king of the 18th dynasty. Architecture.

 1st year: Ambitious building project at Karnak temple • Cult center for Aten (solar deity) • He had a penchant for novelty and display  2 crucial and iconoclastic decisions • Led to name change from Amenhotep “Amun is satisfied” to Akhenaten “Beneficial for Aten” • New capital city called Akhetaten “Horizon of the Aten” (site known as Al-Amarna in Middle Egypt) .

 Solar religion not new to Egypt • Father’s reign: Aten was significant  Spirited promotion of the worship of Aten • Reliefs and Steles showing the family worshipping and making offerings .

Nefertiti and their eldest daughter . New Capital  “revolution from above” aimed at reasserting the pharaoh’s absolute authority over the elite  Swept away old cults eliminating their priests and with this established families who supplied the officials of the bureaucracy  Supposed to be the resting place of Akhenaten.

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 Year 12: major international festival  Soon after family deaths: mother and up to 3 of my daughters (?plague?)  Foreign Relations: • Amarna Letters  Also in Year 12 • coregency with Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (married daughter Meryetaten)  Year 17 dies .

 Disappearance of the family’s bodies  During King Tutankhamen's reign: • Went back to Memphis • Officially sanctioned of uprooting everything of • • • • Akhenaten Works at Karnak Official buildings and Akhetaten Names hacked off reliefs His reign excised from public record/King’s Lists .

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Vol. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. New York: Routledge. 2008.      Aldred. ed. 1. Malden. Kuhrt. Eaton-Krauss. Marianne. “Akhenaten” Pages 5-6 in Who’s Who in Ancient Egypt. Amelie.al. Akhenaten: King of Egypt. Pages 48-51 in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Cyril. Print. Rice. MA: WileyBlackwell. Vol. 1. “Akhenaten” Pages 260-261 in The Encyclopedia of Ancient History. 2013. Martin. 3000-330 BC. London and New York: Routledge. 1999. 1988.T. Aidan. Dodson. 2001. The Princeton Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. Michael. . et. G. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1995. The Ancient Near East.