Hydraulic Symbols

Lecture Outline
 Introduction  Representation of hydraulic components

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Introduction
 Symbols are used to represent a hydraulic system on paper or on a computer.  It becomes necessary to give unique representation of various components in the system considering their operation and specific location.  Every symbol uses elementary forms (such as circle, arc, square, arrow, dot, triangle, cross etc.) to logically represent their contribution in the hydraulic circuit.
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.Introduction contd.  Language independence as the symbols are recognized worldwide.  Unique symbols are used to represent different components.  Symbols emphasize the function of the hydraulic component.  Purposes of using symbols are as follows:  Requirement for technical communication among different stakeholders. 4 .

Representation of Components     Flow lines Reservoirs Pumps Valves     Directional Control Valves Pressure Control Valves Flow Control Valves Check Valves  Actuators (Cylinders and Motors)  Filters  Heat Exchangers 5 .

Flow Lines  Tubes. 6 . pipes or flexible hoses in hydraulic circuits are shown as either continuous or dashed lines as shown below.  Straight or curved to represent degree of flexibility.

categorized as follows: 7 .Reservoirs  Reservoirs are used to store hydraulic fluid and based on the shape of the reservoir container and position in the circuit.

8 .Pumps  Pumps are represented by a circle and a filled triangle which is directed towards the discharge.

 2 .way  3 .way 9 .Directional Control Valves  Directional Control two main notations:  Way  Position Valve terminology include  Way refers to the number of hydraulic ports through which fluid can travel in a DCV.way  4 .way  5 .

 Position refers to the number of switching positions a DCV can take in controlling the direction of flow. 10 ..  DCVs have at least two envelopes which corresponds with a 2-position valve.  A single Position corresponds to an envelope/square in the schematic terminology.Directional Control Valves contd. A 3-position valve will have three envelopes and so on.

 Above symbol indicates four ports..  Each arrow crossing represents two ports.Directional Control Valves contd.  Arrows are added to indicate a direction that fluid can travel through the valve at that point when the valve is in that position. 11 .

12 .Directional Control Valves contd..

Directional Control Valves contd. Two Position (4/2) Valve 13 Four Way. Two Position (3/2) Valve Four Way. Three Position (4/3) Valve . Two Way.. Two Position (2/2) Valve Three Way.

Directional Control Valves contd.. 14 .

Directional Control Valves contd.. 15 .

.Directional Control Valves contd. 16 .

. 17 .Directional Control Valves contd.

. 18 .Directional Control Valves contd.

Four way valve. Four way valve. Direct solenoid operation and spring centered Three position. Tandem Centre.Centre Conditions of DCV Three position. Direct solenoid operation and spring centered 19 . Blocked Centre.

Centre Conditions of DCV Three position. Open Centre. Four way valve. Direct solenoid operation and spring centered 20 .

Pressure Control Valves Valve closed through spring force An arrow through the spring indicates an adjustable spring force 21 .

22 .Flow Control Valves  Either pressure compensated or non-pressure compensated.

Check Valves 23 .

Hydraulic Cylinders 24 .

Hydraulic Motors entry 25 .

Filters 26 .

Heat Exchangers 27 .

direction of shifting of spools or positions of controls on actual components.Symbol Rules  Symbols show connections. flow rate and other component settings. They can indicate conditions occurring during transition from one flow path arrangement to another. Symbols do not indicate construction or values such as pressure. flow paths and functions of components represented. 28 .  Symbols do not indicate location of ports.

Relative sizes should be maintained.  Line width does not alter meaning of symbols. 29 .  Symbols may be rotated or reversed without altering their meaning except in cases of lines to reservoir.  Basic symbols may be shown in any suitable size..Symbol Rules contd. Size may be varied for emphasis or clarity.

30 .  Each symbol is drawn to show normal. at-rest.  Letter combinations used as parts of graphic symbols are not necessarily abbreviations. unless multiple diagrams are furnished showing various phases of circuit operation.Symbol Rules contd.  An arrow through a symbol at approximately 450 indicates that the component can be adjusted or varied. or neutral condition of component..

 External ports are located at intersections of flow lines and at component enclosure symbols when enclosure is used.Symbol Rules contd. except where the component enclosure symbol is used..  External ports are located where flow lines connect to basic symbols. 31 .